Healing Stockholm

Sacred Knowledge


Deo Non Fortuna

Coaching, Kabbalah, Alkemi, Magi, Alkemiutbildning, Prästinneutbildning, Tarot, Healing, Ockult, Esoteric, Astrologi, Gnostic, Yoga, Andlighet, Schamanism, Plantmedicin, Elixir, Esoteriska böcker, Esoterisk podcast, Alkemipodd, Andlighet, Terapeutiska konsultationer, Alkemiska sessioner, Samtalsterapi i Psykosyntes i Stockholm

Om oss

Coaching med hjälp av magiska metoder.


Oavsett om det handlar om karriär, kärlek, relation eller hälsa så behöver männsikan vara hel och i balans för att uppnå de resultat som man letar efter. En människa blir hel, fullständig, lugn, fruktbar, och lycklig när det medvetna och omedvetna har lärt sig att leva i frid med varandra och komplettera varandra. Därför är healing en viktig aspekt och hjälper dig till utveckling.


Att hela något eller någon är att ”göra det helt” som den gemensamma roten till ”hela” anger. Att bringa helhet till något är att komplettera obalans med harmoni och smärta med visdom, inte att ersätta eller övervinna obalansen eller smärtan.


Att vara hel betyder inte att vara perfekt på något vis, det betyder istället att inkludera allting. Att hela är därför att bringa samman de olika delarna i ett system – oberoende av om det gäller människor, djur, växter eller ”livlösa” system – på ett sätt som innesluter snarare än utsluter. När vi gör detta kan vi åstadkomma sant helande istället för det ”helande” som bara inriktar sig på att bota smärta, dölja obalans eller bahandla symtom istället för orsaken.

Vi erbjuder individer och grupper möjligheten att med hjälp av magiska verktyg och sina egna inre krafter hitta sin sanna väg till frihet, insikt, helhet, självkännedom och det drömliv man söker.

Med utgångspunkt i modern coaching och magiska verktyg från mystiken samt den gudomliga energins vägledning blir mötena en blandning av samtal, teori och praktik. 


Vi träffas fysiskt eller digitalt med en frekvens som passar dig för att kartlägga dina behov. Sedan lägger vi upp en personlig strategi som passar just dig, så att du ska kunna utveckla din fulla kraft och få tillgång till dolda förmågor utifrån dig själv i fokus och nå dina uppsatta mål. Detta blir starten för ditt nya bättre jag.  

Alkemiutbildning

Alkemiska Akademin startar hösten 2021 återigen vår mycket uppskattade treåriga  utbildning i alkemi. Den nuvarande kursen blev snabbt fullbokad och deltagarna har nu endast en modul kvar på vägen att bli alkemiska mästare. Alla deltagare får vår stora alkemibok Alkemi – det gudomliga verket som kursbok!


Nivå 1: Fyra helgmoduler under ett år som lär ut grunderna i det alkemiska magnum opus. Modul 1: 25-26 september. Modul 2: 20-21 november.
Prima materia, alkemins fyra utvecklingsfaser, alkemins historia och filosofi. De tre principerna svavel, merkur och salt samt introduktion till de alkemiska bröllopen.


Nivå 2: Fyra helgmoduler under 2022-2023 som fördjupar kunnandet kring alkemins planeter och operationer och uppenbarar själens prima materia. Arbete med eter och astralkroppen och den begynnande egyptiska odödlighetskroppen.


Nivå 3: Fyra helgmoduler under 2023-2024 med avancerad alkemi kring bröllopen och de alkemiska kropparna. Den himmelska prima materian och de vises sten. Corpus Glorificatum, odödlighetskroppen och människan som den levande stenen.


Varje helgmodul kostar 3300 kr (exklusive moms för företag) och betalas i anslutning till varje modul.


Nivå 1 (första året) med fyra moduler:


  • Grundläggande kunskap i det alkemiska arbetets utveckling genom de fyra faserna. Arbete med alkemins fyra faser – Nigredo, Albedo, Citrinitas och Rubedo – beskriver livets utvecklings- och individuationsresa från tillvarons djupaste mörker till dess absoluta fullbordan i De vises sten.
  • Förståelse om och aktivering av den alkemiska hemliga elden.
  • Prima materia.
  • Kunskap om och att aktivt kunna arbeta med de tre alkemiska principerna.
  • Förståelse om hur själens kvaternitet skapar det hela Självet.
  • Att kunna skapa och arbeta i det inre alkemiska rummet genom aktiv imagination.
  • Insikt i alkemins viktigaste begrepp och principer för att själv kunna tolka alkemiska verk.
  • Alkemins begreppsvärld, historik och grundläggande filosofi.
  • Meditation, aktiv imagination och drömalkemi.


Nivå 2 (andra året) med fyra moduler:


  • Arbete med alkemins planeter och operationer och uppenbarandet av själens prima materia.
  • Alkemins fördjupade filosofi och metafysik
  • Arbete med eter- och astralkroppen och den begynnande egyptiska odödlighetskroppen.
  • Egyptisk alkemi.
  • Hieros gamos
  • Skapelseoperationerna i makrokosmos och mikrokosmos.
  • Genomgång av det alkemiska stora verket – Opus Magnum.
  • Fördjupat arbete med den inre alkemiska salen.
  • Hermes Smaragdtavla – Mönstret för skapelsen.
  • De tre alkemiska bröllopen.


Nivå 3 (tredje året) med fyra moduler:


  • Avancerad alkemi kring de alkemiska kropparna: blykroppen, silverkroppen , änglakroppen och guldkroppen.
  • Det alkemiska bröllopet.
  • Palingenesierna; de stora pånyttfödelserna.
  • Alpha & omega.
  • Den himmelska prima materian och De vises sten.
  • Corpus Glorificatum, odödlighetskroppen och människan som den levande stenen.


Alkemi utbildning - Distansutbildning i Alkemi

Prästinneutbildning

Sophiatemplet välkomnar alla som vill vandra hjärtats alkemiska väg. Vi utgår från den heligt feminina visdomen och är inte knutna till någon religiös tradition utan ser gudinnan Sophia som Gudomens feminina aspekt. Hon är gudinnan bakom alla gudinnor världen över och med visdom och kärlek söker Sophia bringa skapelsen och dess barn till helhet och enhet.  När gudinnans kärlek och visdom uppenbaras kan guden och gudinnan fira sitt alkemiska bröllop både i kosmos i stort och inom varje människa.


Sophiatemplet arbetar med en Prästinnetradition som har sitt ursprung i gudinnan Isis och Maria Magdalenas alkemiska hemligheter. Vi ser dem som urgudinnan Sophias profetissor eller inkarnationer som vägleder oss längs med kärlekens väg.

Alkemiska sessioner

Hjärtligt välkommen till en transformerande och djuplodande alkemisk session med Katarina Falkenberg. Nu tar vi åter emot för sessioner i templet om du är fullt frisk.

 

Genom själens stjärna, gudomligt bistånd och alkemisk imagination tränger vi igenom slöjan mellan världarna och mellan tid och rum för att uppenbara det som är viktigt i din livsprocess just nu.
Det kan vara tidigare inkarnationer, ditt eget ursprung eller andra medvetandesfärer som öppnas upp för att du ska kunna verka mer till fullo och i samklang med din gudomliga mission på jorden.

 

Du kan på så vis utveckla dina egna gudomliga förmågor och ges en djupare förståelse av vem du är, varit och är på väg. Du kan bli den levande graalen …

 

Denna heliggörande alkemiska process pågår under 2 timmar.

Terapeutiska konsultationer

Förvandla dina demoner till änglar

Alkemisk terapi handlar om att läka och heliggöra själen med hjälp av kraftfulla metoder från världens äldsta visdomslära.

Vi arbetar med alkemisk djupanalys, energihealing och aktiv imagination (en vägledd meditationsteknik för djupa transformationer och läkningsprocesser) så att själens förlorade skärvor kan återintegreras.

I din själ finns råmaterialet till att skapa ett liv i mening, kärlek och överflöd som är ett resultat av att kropp, själ och ande är i samklang – det alkemiska bröllopet. Alkemisk terapi är en upptäcktsresa till ditt autentiska Själv, med vilket du kan skapa ett liv bortom begränsningar, i enlighet med din själs djupaste önskan, så att din fulla potential kan manifesteras i ett gyllene liv.

Kabbalistisk terapi

Kabbalistisk terapi påminner om den alkemiska, med skillnaden att verktygen hämtas från den  kabbalistiska vishetsläran. Den erbjuder stora möjligheter för individer som önskar arbeta med och vidareutveckla själsliga och andliga nivåer och integrera dessa i kroppen och vardagslivet, oavsett personligt trosuppfattning. En eller flera konsultationer kan lösa upp blockeringar, klargöra intentioner, rikta viljekraft och balansera psykets och själens olika skikt.

Alkemisk vägledning

Under en alkemisk vägledningssession använder vi de alkemiska verktygen för att åstadkomma en positiv livstransformation. Du vägleds i arbetet mot utökad självmedvetenhet så att du kan återfinna din livsvision och frigöra sin livspassion. Med alkemins gyllene kompass vägleds du till att navigera insiktsfullt genom livets alla skeenden och kan därmed frigöra din skaparkraft så att du expandera till den storhet – till det guld – som du i sanning är.

Samtalsterapi i Psykosyntes

Terapi enligt psykosyntesmodell innebär att arbeta med en positiv människosyn och eftersträva en ökad medvetenhet om det mänskliga psyket och dess relation med kropp, själ och ande, dåtid, nutid och framtid. Traditionella terapisamtal, meditationer och drömarbete syftar till att utveckla det sanna jaget och stärka dess viktigaste redskap—viljan.

Kabbalah

Kabbalah (Hebreiska קבלה) stavas alternativ, Cabala, Qabalah från hebreiska קבל KBLH eller QBL, "att ta emot."

En forntida esoterisk undervisning dold för oinvigda, vars grenar och många former har nått över hela världen.


I grund och botten ger Kabbalah ett språk, struktur eller karta där vi kan börja förstå verkligheten, och därför är alla filosofier, religioner, vetenskaper och konst ett sätt att uttrycka kabbala, var och en på sitt sätt och nivå. Där det är oren, där finner vi argument, oenighet, fanatism, misstag etc.


Roten till kabbala är vetenskapen och språket i de överlägsna världarna och är således objektiv, fullständig och utan brist, det sägs att "Alla upplysta varelser är överens", och deras naturliga överensstämmelse är en funktion av det väckta medvetandet. Kabbalah är språket för det medvetandet, så oenighet om dess mening och tolkning beror alltid på de subjektiva elementen i psyken.


Under utbildningen får du lära dig om kabbalah och dess symbolers mysterier samt hur de kan förgylla den moderna människan. 

Healing / Kabbalah 

Det finns olika sätt att använda vid helande, ett sätt är att använda kabbalah (livets träd) och det är viktigt att betona att det bästa helandet är det vi utför på oss själva. Det gamla talesättet ”helare, hela dig själv” är mycket viktigt.


För att helandet ska bli verkligt effektivt bör det också innefatta de förhållanden personen har till sin yttre värld. Detta totala helande kommer att verka på många nivåer, från den fysiska, via den psykologiska, till de djupaste nivåer av andlig kontakt, och samtidigt också behandla eteriska, astrala och andra subtila energier.


Livets träd, som ju är en karta över hela personen, är en idealisk modell att använda vid helande, vare sig det gäller oss själva eller andra. Ett totalt helande av en individ omfattar hela trädet – kroppen, personligheten, själen och anden. Kabbalah erbjuder en säker väg för att utveckla alla delar av vårt väsen.

“Before you heal someone, ask him if he's willing to give up the things that make him sick.” ― Hippocrates

Esoteriska böcker

Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker

TÄNK PÅ DÖDEN

Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker
Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker

ALKEMI - DET GUDOMLIGA VERKET

Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker
Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker

ROSENKORS ALKEMISKA BRÖLLOP

Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker
Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker

HJÄRTATS ALKEMI

Esoteric Books - Esoteriska Böcker

SAINT MARTIN –

OM TINGENS ANDE OCH VÄSEN

DET GYLDENE ROSENKORSETS TEORI, PRAKTIK & FILOSOFI

            SAINT MARTIN –

 TANKAR OCH SJÄLVBIOGRAFI

Böcker om kabbalah, alkemi, magi, andlighet och den esoteriska läran

TRINOSOPHIA

Esoterisk Podcast

Podcast om andlighet, alkemi, kabbalah, magi och den esoteriska läran

Alkemiska Elixir

Alkemiska Akademin erbjuder färdigpreparerade alkemiska elixir och oljor till försäljning. De är alla tillredda med örter och blomster (oftast egenodlade) efter gammal alkemisk praxis, där de tre alkemiska principerna, svavel, merkur och salt har frigjorts, renats och återförenats till ett elixir infuserat med gudomlig kraft.


Pris: 150 kr för en 10 ml glasflaska. Flytande guld och silverelixir kostar 200-300 kr och oljor 200-230 kr.   Porto 10 kr/elixir tillkommer vid försändelser.


Kontakta oss gärna för att få veta mer om vad som är tillgängligt just nu!


Aurum potabile: Aurum Potabile eller flytande guld har länge setts som en universalmedicin eller ett livselixir och kan sägas vara förkroppsligat livgivande solljus eller koagulerad ande. Guld är i alkemin den högsta medicinen och dess essentiella kvaliteter anses stärka hjärtat som är den inre solen i vårt bröst. Aurum Potabile består förutom av guld och manna och en hemlig komposition av läkeörter också av flertalet gudomliga elixir som i sig bär solens signum. Alla sju planeternas elixir finns också dubbeldestillerade i detta flytande guldelixir, så att att dessa dansar runt solkonungen. Det gör elixirets krafter mycket centrerade och balanserande.

Elixirets tas med fördel på morgonen för att stärka kontakten med anden, vårt högre jag och den gudomliga gnistan inom en. Detta gyllene elixir är stärkande vid det alkemiska arbetet med att transfigurera eterkroppen och kan användas för att realisera självet och medvetliggöra själens djup och mission.

Elixiret dricks tre droppar direkt i munnen eller utspätt i lite vatten eller rött vin under ceremonier. Pris: 200-300 kr beroende på storlek på flaskan.


Argentum potabile: Argentum Potabile är ett potent silverelixir fyllt av månens krafter och av mångudinnans och gudens olika fasetter. Förutom silver och ett hemligt recept av läkeväxter består det av ett antal gudomliga elixir som bär månens signum. Det lämpar sig utmärkt på kvällen för meditation, imagination och nattens drömarbete samt för att rena och transformera astralkroppen under vilken tid på dygnet som helst. Elixiret förstärker rituellt arbete och underlättar kontakten med vårt omedvetna. Alla sju planeternas elixir finns också dubbeldestillerade i detta flytande silverelixir, så att att dessa dansar runt måndrottningen. Det gör elixirets krafter mycket centrerade och balanserande.

Elixiret dricks tre droppar direkt i munnen eller utspätt i lite vatten eller vitt vin under ceremonier. Pris: 200-300 kr beroende på storlek på flaskan.


Argentum Potabile kan också med fördel drickas tillsammans med Aurum Potabile och då för att kunna förena guldelixirets solara kraft med månens lunara kraft så att ett alkemiskt bröllop kan komma till stånd.


Ärkeängel elixir:


Gabriels elixir: Gabriel  är måndagens ängel vars namn betyder ” Guds styrka” och knyter an till både styrkan i Modern Maria och den som vakar över barnen. Gabriel är den  ärkeängel som tros tjäna som sändebud från Gud och elixiret kan hjälpa till i kommunikation mellan både gudom och människa och människor emellan. Gabriels änglaelixirs signum är den vita liljan som symboliserar Marias renhet och ger människan hoppets gåva.


Rafaels elixir: Onsdagens ängel är Rafael vars namn betyder Gud läker. Rafael är läkekonstens ängel och elixiret används vid åkallan och vid olika former av healingarbeten. Rafael menas också vaka över livets träd i Edens lustgård och är därmed beskyddare av det mysterier som rör de fullödiga krafterna som vi människor förlorade genom fallet. Genom elixiret kan vi lättare samarbete med Rafael och invigas i helandets konst på djupet. Människan kan på så sätt återfå sin ursprungligt enhetliga prima materia och åter bli hel. Rafaels elixir förstärker också kontakten med vår egen skyddsängel eftersom Rafael arbetar med skyddsänglarna.


Anaels elixir: Anael, som ibland skrivs Haniel, betyder ”Guds ära” eller ”Guds nåd”, och är fredagens ängel som verkar inom Venus sfär. Anaels elixir hjälper oss att uppleva den gudomliga nåden, Guds glädjes nåd, kärlek och ära.  Anaels elixir kan vara behjälpligt om man blir negativt påverkad av månens cykler och hjälper oss att hedra våra naturliga rytmer, cykler och vårt humör.  Anael som är Venus egen ängel är ett blomstrande elixir som bringar kärlek, fröjd och fruktbarhet.


Mikaels elixir: Mikael är Solens ärkeängel vars namn betyder ”är lik Gud” eller den retoriska frågan ”vem är lik Gud?”. Mikael har en given ledarroll bland ärkeänglarna och ängelns elixir hjälper oss att hitta mod och styrka så att vi vågar stå upp för det vi tror på och leva i sanning utifrån vår djupaste essens – vår inre sol. Elixiret hjälper oss att åkalla ärkeängel Mikael som beskydd när man har att hantera vredesfulla krafter oavsett om de bor inom eller utom oss. Mikael är en kraftfull försvarare av det oskuldsfulla och det femininas kvalitéer och det finns många berättelser om hur han agerat som skyddande ängel. Mikaels svärd hjälper till att släppa de rädslor som begränsar människan och skölden skyddar mot hot och demoner. Mikaels elixir är också behjälplig med att rena platser från stagnerade och oförlösta energier och används som en stark skyddande kraft vid ceremonier och ritualer. Ärkeängel Mikaels elixir är beskyddande och hjälper oss att hantera både inre och yttre drakar så att ett bröllop mellan motsatserna till slut kan komma till stånd.


Kamaels elixir: Kamael vars namn ofta tolkas som ”den som ser Gud” eller ibland som ”Guds brännare” är tisdagens ängel och styr över planeten Mars insegel. Kamaels elixir hjälper oss att verka för gudomlig rättvisa och balans och ser till att vi går framåt längs vår utstakade väg, övervinner hinder och inte faller åt sidan genom krafter som söker dra människan ner i avgrundsdjupet. Mars ängel Kamael är ett kraftfullt elixir som bränner bort motstånd mot helheten och för oss med kraft in på vårt hjärtas valda väg.


Sachiels elixir: Sachiel, vars namn betyder ”Guds täckning”, är torsdagens ängel och vaktar över Jupiters insegel. Sachiels elixir kan med fördel användas i förehavanden som rör finansiella, rättsliga eller sociala frågor. Liksom den gode konung Jupiter hjälper Sachiel till med allt som hör det goda riket till såsom att nå överflöd, ge till välgörenhet och skipa rättvisa.  Sachiels elixir  har en expanderande och upplyftande energi och lär oss att vara kraftfulla men samtidigt empatiska och givmilda mot andra.


Uriels elixir: Uriel vars namn betyder ”Guds ljus” eller ”eld” förmedlar elixirets kraft att lysa upp materians mörker och heliggöra densamma. Genom sin kommunikation med Uriel och de andra änglarna utvecklade magikern John Dee och Edward Kelly ett magiskt system som kom att kallas Henokiansk magi och som sägs realtera till den apokryfiska Henoks bok. Uriels elixir hjälper oss att tränga djupare in i den alkemisk-magiska traditionen. Det är ett transformerande elixir som bringar ljus in de fördolda alkemiska processerna och hemligheterna.


Tzapkilels elixir: Tzapkiel  namn betyder ”Guds begrundan” men även förståelse och medkänsla. Ärkeängeln lär oss att älska Gud, oss själva och varandra. Tzapkiel är också sammanlänkad till planeten Saturnus och är lördagens ängel. Även då änglar ej brukar betraktas som manliga eller kvinnliga så ses Tzapkiel oftas som en kvinnlig ängel eftersom Tzapkiel är förbunden med urmoder Binahs sefira på livets träd i kabbalan. Tzapkiel hjälper oss till andlig förståelse och ser till att man följer sitt högre mål i linje med  kosmos i sin helhet. Det gör Tzapkiel till en bro mellan himmel och jord så att vi kan bli medvetna om det osynliga och omanifesterade världarna. Tzapkiel hjälper oss att utveckla vår förståelse och visdom så att vi kan fördjupa och expandera vår andliga närvaro i oss själva och världen samt är stödjande i alla sorgprocesser.


Den heliga graalens elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat och konsekrerat på Englands heliga graalplatser såsom Camelot, The Tor, Chalice well och White spring. Det innehåller rituellt vatten från den röda och vita källan bevarat genom alkohol samt består av en blomstrande örtkomposition som bringar fruktbarhet till den öde marken. Ett elixir för dig som vill uppenbara Paradisets förlorade eter och bringa helhet, fruktbarhet och överflöd in i ditt liv. Verkar helande på eterkroppen och på själsliga nivåer.


Graalriddarens elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat på fransk graalriddarmark med örter från de heliga plasterna och konsekrerat i den levande gudens kapell. Därefter konsekrerat på Englands heliga graalplatser såsom Camelot, The Tor, Chalice well och White spring. Det innehåller rituellt vatten från den röda och vita källan bevarat genom alkohol. Elixiret fullkomnades slutligen i Templecombe där Tempelriddarnas skatt öppnades upp och bringade sin kraft in i elixiret. Ett elixir för alla graalriddare och Tempelriddare som bringar kraft, mod och ridderlig visdom.


Gud moders elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat i Gud Moders kloster på Cypern med sin heliga källa dit Riddare genom historien har färdats till för att hela sina sår efter striderna. Örterna har en läkande och mjuk moderlig kraft och är stärkande för både själsliga och kroppsliga sår. Elixiret bär kraften av Gud Moders urkälla som enar och förenar alla oavsett kultur och religion

.

Athenas elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat med grekiska örter i solen på Athenas egna marker. Liksom gudinnan Athena hjälper det oss att bringa ordning i konflikt och kaos genom en högre balanserande visdom. Elixiret är stärkande och hjälper till att hantera rädsla och oro.


Floras elixir: Detta elixir är ett gudinnerligt välsmakande och blomstrande elixir liksom blomstergudinnan Flora själv. Det flödar av naturens ljus, intelligens och vänlighet och sprider sitt blomstrande ljus i mörka tider. Utmärkt vid nedstämdhet och under den mörka kalla delen av året.


Kröningselixir: Detta elixir är preparerat på Frankrikes heliga gudinneplatser med örter från dessa marker. Det har konsekrerats i Notre Dame du cros där guden kröner gudinnan i både den heliga jorden, källan, kyrkan och den fantastiska Rosenvägen som leder till gudinnans återuppståndelse. Detta är ett invigningelixir som uppenbarar ett av alkemins djupaste mysterium där guden kröner Maria/Sophia inför fullbordan i det alkemiska bröllopet. Elixiret verkar heliggörande på både det heligt maskulina och feminina liksom på kropp, själ och ande.


Melusinas elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat under lång tid under den alkemiska sjöjungfruns vägledande kraft. Melusina – är i alkemin den kraft som från djupet av urhavets kaos skapar visdomens mjölk och hjärtats röda elixir. Detta elixir hjäper till att transformera vår egen inre sjöjungfrukraft så att den alkemiska Sirenen som först uppenbarade sig i sin fallna och neddragande aspekt  kan byta  skepnad och framträda i sin närande och moderliga aspekt som bjuder på sitt visdomselixir till den som vågat träda ner och in i sitt eget djupaste mörker. Från det bittra vattnet i vårt mörka omedvetna bringar hon visdomens salt! Elixiret är också helande och stärkande för äggstockar och livmoder. 


Pans elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat i Pans grekiska hemtrakter med både kraftfulla och sällsynta örter. Det öppnar den nyckellösa dörren till Arkadien och verkar också som Afrodisiak. Elixiret är konsekrerat genom Dion Fortune fantastiska Panritual och lämpar sig utmärkt för liknande riter. Pan som betyder all genomsyrar naturen med sin fullödiga och extatiska kraft varför detta elixir lämpar sig väl för den som vill utforska dessa marker och omfamna sin egen Pan. Detta elixir hjälper till att omfamna denna för många skrämmande kraft på ett kärleksfullt vis så att Pan inte behöver överrumpla oss och skapa Pan, Pan Panik i det omedvetna.


Ormgudinnans kundalinielixir: Detta elixir är preparerat på Kreta i den Minoiska ormgudinnans trakter med örter som väcker drakeldens och ormkraftens kundalinield. Ormgudinnan hjälper oss att behärska, transformera och omvandla denna ofta nästan förtärande ormkraft till att kunna stiga upp med gudinnans hjälp och sprida gryningsljusets gyllene strålar likt Aurora – gryningsgudinnan. Det är hon som i gryningen får himlen att flamma som av flytande guld. Detta elixir är ett botemedel mot kraftlöshet, mörker och tristess och hjälper oss att transformera vår inre glöd genom kärlek så att vi kan blomma ut likt gryningssolen.


Transfigurationselixir: Detta elixir är preparerat i Grekland med kraftfulla örter från bergen såsom Malotira som är en bergsört vars grekiska namn sidertis betyder ”han som är gjord av järn”.  Örten var känd i det forntida Grekland och ansågs bota skador förorsakade av vapen gjorda av järn. Elixiret har därför en läkande verkan på både den fysiska kroppen och på eterkroppen som ofta har revor och sår från attacker av olika slag.

Det består också av egyptiska blad som verkar stärkande, helande och transfigurerande på eterkroppen och som till sin själva form liknar transfigurationskroppens vesica pisces. Elixiret har konsekrerats under flertal dagar och nätter i ett Transfigurationskapell vid havet. Det är lämpligt för den som själv vill arbeta med att omskapa sin eterkropp till en helig eterisk graal och har som sinnebild  Jesus tranfiguration på det heliga berget Thabor.


Johannes döparens elixir: Elixiret driver ut det stagnerande och bereder väg för ljuset och det gudomliga barnet. Elixiret är en komposition av örter som bla består av Johannesört och egyptiska blad.


Lasarus elixir: Lasarus elixir är ett invigningselixir som är preparerat och konsekrerat i Larnaca och dess kyrka som har Lasarus relikskrin. Lasarus invigningen rör eterkroppens och astralkroppens transformation och Transfiguration och är för den som söker arbeta med alkemins stora mysterier kring odödlighetskroppen och om hur människan kan bli en Mikael vars namn betyder – vem är likt Gud? 


Klassiska elixir:


Rosens elixir: bringar allting till en fruktbar fullbordan liksom rosen väg. Består endast av rosor av mångahanda slag.


Prästinnans elixir: Ett elixir för den som vandrar Prästinnans heliggörande väg.


Hieros Gamos elixir: Det alkemiska bröllopets elixir.


Sophia – naturens ljus: Ett elixir infuserat av Sophia som naturens ljus och intelligens. Bringar naturens visdom till människan.


Tempelriddarens elixir: Ett kraftfullt och ridderligt elixir som är preparerat och konsekrerats i Temple Church i London med örter från stormästarens trädgård. Tempelriddarens elixir bringar svärdets skärpa och beskyddande kraft.


Kunskapens träd elixir: Kunskapens träd är ett unikt elixir som för oss åter till Arkadiens frukter och som beretts på Frankrikes mest heliga och alkemiska platser och där också konsekrerats ceremoniellt.

Detta är ett mystikt elixir som för oss in i hjärtat av både den esoteriska och den gnostiska traditionen för att där kunna plocka visdomens alkemiska frukter.


Marie Madeleine – eau de vie: Maria Magdalenas elixirärinfuserat med kraft  från hennes grotta i St Baume och preparerat med bergsmassivets heliga örter.


St Saras elixir: Detta elixir är preparerat  i Saintes Maries de la mer och infuserat med kraft från Sankta Saras krypta.


Apollons elixir:


Reintegrerande (av den mörke ängeln) elixir


Gyllene skattens elixir Detta mycket heliggörande elixir är infuserat med kraft från Rennes le Chateau och många andra franska kraftplatser. Ett gyllene elixir som för oss in i djupet av de alkemiska mysterierna om människans gudomliggörande.


Sanningens hjärta: Detta elixir låter fröet till det eteriska hjärtat blomstra genom att  det maskulina hjärtat förenas med det feminina hjärtat så att rosen i vårt bröst kan blomma ut. Konsekrerat på Frankrikes alkemiska platser.


Drottningen av Sabas elixir: bjuder på en magisk blandning av fyra elixir och aktiverar eterkroppen.


Övriga elixir:


Människodotterns elixir

Den gyllene ängeln:

Tors kraftelixir

Frejas Mirakel

Odens Magi

Sagas Skaldekonst

Sophias döttrar

Högre skyddande ängel

Den levande gudens elixir

Det alkemiska bröllopet

Graalens ängel

Högre skyddande ängel

Jordens ängel

Dianas elixir

Gudinnans sköld 

Transformation SLUT

Det gudomliga barnet

De tre Johannes elixir

Det alkemiska bröllopet

Urgudinnans elixir

Trubadurernas kärlek

Sophias eldvatten

Lazarustecknet

Den röde konungens elixir

Den svarta Madonnans elixir

Dionysos växtblod

Afrodites kärlekselixir 

Maria Magdalenas elixir SLUT

Den svarta jaguarens elixir

Det röda lejonets elixir SLUT

Isis magi

Den nya människan SLUT

Isis & Osiris


Pris 150 kr/st. Kan inhandlas vid Templets evenemang eller beställas via mail. Frakt 10 kr tillkommer då.


Nya salvor:


Afrodites sköna salva med oljeinfuserade örter och blomster samt eteriska oljor för vård och kärlek till ansiktet: 250 kr


Hjärtsalva med oljeinfuserade örter och blomster samt eteriska oljor för helande smörjelse av hjärta, bröst och hjärtchakrat: 250 kr


Maria Magdalens smörjelseolja:


Maria Magdalenas mycket exklusiva smörjelseolja som finns i två varianter och med ett tillhörande informationsblad är en av templets absoluta storfavoriter bland våra kunder. Finns som Roll on flaska i glas eller blå glasflaska med droppkork. Dess eteriska dofter och infuserade blomster passar sig för healing, läkande behandlingar och för smörjelse av våra sju chackran. De verkar både helande och levandegörande på eterkroppen och den fysiska kroppen och harmonierar kropp, själ och ande. De har en alkemiskt preparerad oljebas där örter har infuserats under lång tid under vägledning av det heliga balsamets bärarinna – Maria Magdalena!

Pris: Blå flaska & Roll on 230 kr


Gudinnan på jorden. Underbar och helande parfymolja som gläder alla våra subtila kroppar såväl de som möter bäraren av den.

Pris: 230 kr Alkemiska heliggörande oljor för våra sju chakran.

Pris per chakra: Roll on och brun flaska med pipett: 220 kr


Örtalkemi:


Örtalkemi omtalas som en spagyrisk konst. Termen spagyria användes av den kände 1500-tals alkemisten Paracelsus och kommer från det grekiska orden spao och ageiro som betyder att separera och foga samman igen. Paracelsus såg det som att naturen var som en rå och obehandlad sten och människan hade av Gud getts uppgiften att förädla den.

I örtalkemi innebär det att man i den valda medicinalörten, separerar dess merkur och svavel från dess saltkropp. De olika komponenterna bearbetas, renas, och heliggörs för att sedan åter fogas samman i en ny och förädlad form. På så sätt skapas ett alkemiskt elixir.  Genom ora et labora, som betyder bön och laboratoriearbete, arbetar alkemisten för att förädla sitt utvalda material till sin fulla potential.


Om du själv vill lära dig att skapa alkemiska elixir så håller Alkemiska Akademin en utbildning i  detta. Det är en praktisk utbildning som kommer åter augusti 2020. Den är mycket populär så boka i god tid!

Örtalkemi är också en modul i Sophiatemplets två-åriga Prästinneutbildning.


Alkemiska startkit:


Vi erbjuder också alkemiska tinktur startkit med Ärkeänglarna Mikael och Rafael, samt Venus som tema än så länge.  Det innehåller utvalda och alkemiskt heliggjorda örter i en vacker påse, en bägare med gyllene lock, filter samt instruktion för hur du tillreder din egna alkemiska tinktur.

De tre kiten som nu är klara innehåller Ärkeängeln Rafaels örter & Ärkeängeln Mikaels örter samt gudinnan Venus örter. Nu kan alla sätta igång med att skapa alkemiska tinktur. Pris: 200 kr. (porto tillkommer) eller inhandlas på våra evenemang. 

Esoteric Blog

I. N. R. I. DE MYSTERIIS ROSÆ RUBEÆ ET AUREÆ CRUCIS

MARK WELL, O my Son, and give heed unto this my counsel and advice, O thou who hast for the first time this day beheld the Mysteries of the Redde Rose whereon sparkleththe Dew, and of the Golden Cross from which cometh the Light of the World. Is not this Symbol to be found upon the breast of all true Brethren of the Rosie Cross? Hold fast to this Jewel and treasure it as thy Life itself, for many and great are its virtues, and of these will I now discourse unto you in part.

Know then, O my Son, that there be many Crosses and that the Symbolism of these varieth according to the Art of the Wise which giveth them due Proportion; so, too, are to be found Roses whose Petals signifie a Five-fold, and a Twenty-two-fold, and a Forty-nine-fold Order. These, again, may seem to be united or divided, in whole or in part; yet each Symbol concealeth its aspect of the One Secret most perfectly,according to the Understanding of the true Seeker after L. V. X.


It would seem in these latter days that the true Light bath been much darkened and obscured, so that even the most ignorant imposters, having heard our motto "Omnia ab Uno,"which signifieth how All cometh from the One, have thought that all Roses and all Crosses be alike and of equal virtue; yet herein they err gravely, which error bath become apparent in the strange confusion which at this time prevaileth, so that their words have become as a Babel, even as it was of old time to the great hurt of the human race.

And even though our Father, Christian Rosencreutz, and our Antient Brethren his heirs and successors, did much to restore the Order of the Universe and the Power of the Word therein, yet such is the Darkness in which men live, and such the confusion that is now upon us, that it were indeed time that the trueBrothers should again extend the Light of the Cross, if-so-be a spark of the true Fire yet burns brightly within them.


Unto you, O my Son, in whom that Fire burns, I would be as a bellows to fan the Flame into a great burning which shall illume the Darkness wherein thou walkest; so that from a flickering rushlight thou mayest become as a Lamp of Pure Oil, and that thy Lamp mayshine forth as an Ever-burning Star of Hope to thy fellow men.

For this reason will I discourse unto you, not of the Cross of Suffering to which thou wert bound and upon which thou tookest thine Obligation on behalf of the Universe—thatObligation, every Clause of which contained a Secret reference to the Holy Sephiroth, the Emanations of the One from Whom cometh All—but rather of that great and complete Symbol of the Rose and Cross concealed within thy breast, upon the back of which is engraved "Magister Iesus Christus—Deus est Homo—Benedictus Dominus Deus Noster qui dedit nobis Signum"and thy Mystic Name as Fra ∴ R. R. et A. C.

But it is of the face of the Cross that I would chiefly discourse unto thee, for, wearing it upon thy breast, thou art become as the Sun whoseeth not His own Face, yet giveth the Light of His Countenance to the Just and to the Unjust with equal Love and Blessing.


What is it, then, that I see upon thy breast, O my Son?

In the Centre of All is a Single Point of Light whose Starry Brilliance blinds these eyes, Secret Self for it is even as Hadit, Thy Secret Self at the Centre of thy Being. It is Unique, Thy One Secret which thou sharest with the One, not with the Many. It is Thy True Name, the Word which brought Thee into Being, whoseEcho thou now art, and will be to the End. This I know, for such a Word and such a Light dwelleth in Me, and I in Him. It is also that Word which is writ in the White Cubic Stone, but for each it is different, and no man may know It but he who possesses It.

Around, and Illumined by that Central Light, is a Rose of Five Petals. It is the Star of Unconquered Will, the Will of the One Light and Word of thy Being as it comes into Manifestationin Matter. It is the Sign of Man, the Microcosm, who mirrors through his Five Senses, the Great Rose of Creation. This Rose lives indeed, and the Green barbs, which have opened to display it, are still bright with colour as they extend in Four Directions, each harmonizing and bringing to a point Two of the Elements from which thou wast made.


This Rose sparkles upon a Cross of Gold, and though crucified thereon, to it Glory and Suffering are identical. This Cross is of Six Squares, an Unfolded Cube; it is that same White Stone wherein the True Name was Concealed, yet opened as a Cross in order that it may be known as a Living Stone, displaying the Secret of Life Itself. With its Arms it showeth forth the L. V. X. which is the Light of the Cross; its sacrifice discloseth the Rose of Love, and this supreme act of revealment declareth its own essential Liberty. Thus we findLight, Life, Love and Liberty in the very Heart of Man, while concealed behind all are the words: Deus est Homo.


This, O my Son, I behold On the Centre ofthy Jewel, but even as thou art but a tiny image of the All, so is this but a tiny image concealed within the Heart of a Greater Rose, wherein it flashes forth as a gleam of Red Gold.

Thou rememberest, O my Son, when thou wast within the Sacred Vault, which is to be found within the Mountain of A ∴—that Vaultof Seven Sides, each Side of which showed forth the Colour of one of the Great Planetary Intelligences? Never wilt thou forget that LIGHT which is the Great Mystery of theCeiling of the Vault, even though, Ages hence, the Darkness of the Floor may be obliteratedfrom thy memory when the Light has completed Its Work.

Dost thou remember how, touching with the Wand the Rose and Cross upon the breast of the form in the Pastos, thou wert promptedto say "Out of the darkness let the light arise"? And how a Voice from the still figure within, replied: "Buried with that LIGHT in a mystical Death, rising again in a mystical resurrection,Cleansed and Purified through him our MASTER, O Brother of the Cross of the Rose! Like him, O Adepts of all ages, have ye toiled; like him have ye suffered Tribulation. Poverty, Torture, and Death have ye passed through. They have been but the purification of the Gold."


"In the Alembic of thine Heart,
Through the Athanor of Affliction,
Seek thou the true stone of the Wise."


Hast thou not found such a Stone concealed in the Heart of the Rose of Creation? Is not that Stone Thyself? Never again wilt thou be "Shut up" for the Rose of Thy Being has opened, and Thy prison has been exchanged for a Cross. But in this transition "That which is below has become like unto that which is above" and that which is within seeth Itselfin that which is without. Thus there is Beauty and Harmony in this Degree of Adeptship.

But though thou mayest know the Word of this Grade and the Formulæ thereof, thou hast yet to Overcome many difficulties e’er thou art Master of the Temple of the Universe. Around thee I see the First Three Petals of the Greater Rose, forming an upright Triangle upon which are the Sacred Letters Aleph (A), Men (M) and Shin (Sh), each shining upon a petal of a different Colour—Yellow, Blue, and Red. As thou hast already been taught, these are the Three Mother Letters of the Sacred Hebrew Alphabet, the Letters of the Three Elements, of which the Fourth, or Earth, is the admixture. Thou must master the Elements, O my Son! These are to be found in the Cross of thine own being, and thou hast already learned to "Establish thyself firmly in the equilibrium of forces, in the centre of the Cross of the Elements, that Cross from whose Centre the Creative Word issued in the birth of the dawning Universe." Thou has learned to be "Prompt and active as the Sylphs, but to avoid frivolity and caprice; to be energetic and strong like the Salamanders, but to avoid irritability and ferocity; to be flexible and attentive to images like the Undines, but to avoid idleness and changeability; to be laborious and patient like the Gnomes, but to avoid grossness and avarice." Thou must not forget these early lessons in thy search after greater ones.


Seven other Petals encircle these Three, each again shines forth in its true Colour, forming the Rainbow of Promise; but of Promise fulfilled, since the Circle is Complete. Upon each Petal appears another Sacred Letter, the Letters of the Seven Planets, those great Elementary planetary Rulers whose Influence is ever-present and whose Aid thou mayest accept or reject at Will. If thou wouldst master the Elements thou wilt do well to Invoke the Aid and Co-operation of the Great Celestial Intelligences, Who, through thine own Holy Guardian Angel, areever ready and willing to lend thee of their Wisdom and Power. These are the Rulers of the Sephiroth below Chokmah and above Malkuth, according to the Plan of the Minutum Mundum which thou saw’st upon the small altar within the Vault of Initiation.


Yet again, surrounding these Seven, areTwelve outermost Petals, engraved with the Simple Letters of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac, the Sphere of the Fixed Stars. Each has its appropriate Colour, and all may be recomposed into the White Light of the Centre. In the Outer these Colours mix and form the Grey of the Sphere of Chokmah, which is ever the balance of Black and White; but Within,the Great Star Universe is focused upon that Central Point, which is Everywhere, since the circumference of the Infinite Rose is Nowhere. This Centre is the Kether of the Whole Scheme, for "Deus est Homo."

Thus, O my Son, have I drawn for thee the Great Rose of Two-and-twenty Petals, the Two-and-twenty Letters of the Holy Alphabet from which may be formed all Words, sacred and profane. These are united and bound together in such a manner that the Sigils of the Angels may be drawn therefrom, but of this I may not speak more plainly, for it is thy task to discover and use them. And the Influence of the Rose is that MEZLA which is the Influence from the Crown, and this descendeth like Dew upon the Rose, even as it Uniteth the Sephiroth of the Tree of Life. This Tree is itself formed as an Ankh, which is but a form of the Rose and Cross, used by our Brethren of Antient Egypt as a Sign of their Way or Going; as such it is the Key of the ROTA. or Taro of Thoth.


When, O my Son, by means of thy Central Will, thou shalt have expanded thy Rose of Five Petals so that it comprehends this Greater Rose whereof the Petals are Two-and-twenty, thou mayest come to a further understanding of the Cross which hath Four Arms, the sum of which from One to Four, being Ten, as arethe Holy Sephiroth.

This Great Cross, of which the cross of thy being is a reflection and minute counterpart, is again formed of Six Squares, for it, too, represents the Unfolded Cube. The Cube is matter; the Cube unfolded displays the several Elements with their Spiritual Centre. So, likewise, doth IHVH appear as God of the Elements until SHIN, the Holy Spirit, descendeth into the midst and bursteth Him asunder as IHShVH, which is the Name of the God-Man, the Redeemer.

So likewise is Man, the Pentagram of theElements Crowned with Spirit, shown with Unconquered Will on each Arm of the Cross. Thus is he Master of the Four Worlds, through co-operation with the Macrocosmic or Divine World which is found Symbolized by the Hexagram below the Great Rose on the lower Arm of the Cross, and which appears surrounded with the Planetary Symbols with the Sign of the Sun in the midst.


The extremity of each Arm of the Cross is Triple, and each triplicity is assigned to the Three Alchemical Principles in their proper combinations. Thus again we find the suggestion of Twelve Circles, corresponding to the Zodiac or Star Universe, while the Thirteenth is concealed as a Point in their midst, and is the UNITY thereof. Thirteen is One plus Three which is Four; Four is the Number of Manifestationin Matter; in Matter the Three Principles (or Gunas) are ever operative, singly as forces united as Spirit.

Thou has, O my Son, the knowledge of the Invoking and Banishing Rituals of the Pentagram, whereby thou mayest control the Elements and the Astral Plane; therefore thou understandest how these Pentagrams should be traced with thy Wand and Will, and how this formula is symbolically shown in the arrangement of the Symbols of the Elements which are shown round the Pentagrams upon the Arms of the Mighty Cross. Thou knowest, too, how the Planetary Rulers, and even the Zodiacal Signs, are to be Invoked or Banished by means of the Holy Hexagram, the true arrangement of which is also shown in this Symbol. But what of the Barbed Rose Leaves which in the Microcosmic Rose were single, and here are shown as Triple in each quarter? What of the Letters and Symbols thereon?


Here indeed is given the Formula whereby the L. V. X. may be drawn from the Cross, and the Key-Word found, and the Word be subtlyextracted therefrom. Without this knowledge how cans’t thou give the true Signs of thy Grade? Let us therefore analyse the Keyword, as did our Antient Brethren:


I.
N.
R.
I.


Yod.
Nun.
Resh.
Yod.


Virgo, Isis, Mighty Mother.
Scorpio, Aphopis, Destroyer.
Sol, Osiris, Slain and Risen.
Isis, Aphopis, Osiris..


I. A. O.


Make now the Signs whereby the L. V. X.which is the Light of the Cross, shines forth, and thou hast the meaning of the Rose Leaves of thy Mystic Jewel; leaves that are Ever-Green as Life Itself.


And now, O my Son, go thou and partake of the Mystic Eucharist, even as thou hast been taught by Those who Know. Fortify thyself, for thou hast yet a perilous journey before thee. Thou hast been led unto the Light; bethink thee that there is yet another Rose and Cross, the Rose of Nine-and-forty Petals---which is Seven by Seven—upon the Cross of Five Squares. The Mysteries of these thou wilt someday know, but not now; for these partake the nature of that Great Darkness of N. O. X., the Darkness which is as the Light which is Higher than Eyesight; the Pure Darkness of Understanding, or of the Womb of the Lady Babalon, and the City of the Pyramids which is the Abode of NEMO.


May thy Mind be open unto the Higher,
Thy Heart a Centre of Light,
And thy Body the Temple of the Rosy Cross.


Vale Frater!


I.N.R.I: De Mysteriis Rosæ Rubeæ et Aureæ Crucis, by Frater Achad (Charles Robert Stansfeld Jones)



LEGEND OF THE BIRTH OF HORUS, SON OF ISIS AND OSIRIS

THE text which contains this legend is found cut in hieroglyphics upon a stele which is now preserved in Paris. Attention was first called to it by Chabas, who in 1857 gave a translation of it in the Revue Archéologique, p. 65 ff., and pointed out the importance of its contents with his characteristic ability. The hieroglyphic text was first published by Ledrain in his work on the monuments of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, 1 and I gave a transcript of the text, with transliteration and translation, in 1895. 2

The greater part of the text consists of a hymn to Osiris, which was probably composed under the XVIIIth Dynasty, when an extraordinary development of the cult of that god took place, and when he was placed by Egyptian theologians at the head of all the gods. Though unseen in the temples, his presence filled all Egypt, and his body formed the very substance of the country. He was the God of all gods and the Governor of the Two Companies of the gods, he formed the soul and body of Ra, he was the beneficent Spirit of all spirits, he was himself the celestial food on which the Doubles in the Other World lived. He was the greatest of the gods in On (Heliopolis), Memphis, Herakleopolis, Hermopolis, Abydos, and the region of the First Cataract, and so. He embodied in his own person the might of Ra-Tem, Apis and Ptah, the Horus-gods, Thoth and Khnemu, and his rule over Busiris and Abydos continued to be supreme, as it had been for many, many hundreds of years. He was the source of the Nile, the north wind sprang from him, his seats were the stars of heaven which never set, and the imperishable stars were his ministers. All heaven was his dominion, and the doors of the sky opened before him of their own accord when he appeared. He inherited the earth from his father Keb, and the sovereignty of heaven from his mother Nut. In his person he united endless time in the past and endless time in the future. Like Ra he had fought Seba, or Set, the monster of evil, and had defeated him, and his victory assured to him lasting authority over the gods and the dead. He exercised his creative power in making land and water, trees and herbs, cattle and other four-footed beasts, birds of all kinds, and fish and creeping things; even the waste spaces of the desert owed allegiance to him as the creator. And he rolled out the sky, and set the light above the darkness.


The last paragraph of the text contains an allusion to Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris, and mentions the legend of the birth of Horus, which even under the XVIIIth Dynasty was very ancient, Isis, we are told, was the constant protectress of her brother, she drove away the fiends that wanted to attack him, and kept them out of his shrine and tomb, and she guarded him from all accidents. All these things she did by means of spells and incantations, large numbers of which were known to her, and by her power as the "witch-goddess." Her "mouth was trained to perfection, and she made no mistake in pronouncing her spells, and her tongue was skilled and halted not." At length came the unlucky day when Set succeeded in killing Osiris during the war which the "good god" was waging against him and his fiends. Details of the engagement are wanting, but the Pyramid Texts state that the body of Osiris was hurled to the ground by Set at a place called Netat, which seems to have been near Abydos. 1 The news of the death of Osiris was brought to Isis, and she at once set out to find his body. All legends agree in saying that she took the form of a bird, and that she flew about unceasingly, going hither and thither, and uttering wailing cries of grief. At length she found the body, and with a piercing cry she alighted on the ground. The Pyramid Texts say that Nephthys was with her that "Isis came, Nephthys came, the one on the right side, the other on the left side, one in the form of a Hat bird, the other in the form of a Tchert bird, and they found Osiris thrown on the ground in Netat by his brother Set." The late form of the legend goes on to say that Isis fanned the body with her feathers, and produced air, and that at length she caused the inert members of Osiris to move, and drew from him his essence, wherefrom she produced her child Horus.


This bare statement of the dogma of the conception of Horus does not represent all that is known about it, and it may well be supplemented by a passage from the Pyramid Texts, 1 which reads, "Adoration to thee, O Osiris. 2 Rise thou up on thy left side, place thyself on thy right side. This water which I give unto thee is the water of youth (or rejuvenation). Adoration to thee, O Osiris! Rise thou up on thy left side, place thyself on thy right side. This bread which I have made for thee is warmth. Adoration to thee, O Osiris! The doors of heaven are opened to thee, the doors of the streams are thrown wide open to thee. The gods in the city of Pe come [to thee], Osiris, at the sound (or voice) of the supplication of Isis and Nephthys. . . . . . . Thy elder sister took thy body in her arms, she chafed thy hands, she clasped thee to her breast [when] she found thee [lying] on thy side on the plain of Netat." And in another place we read: 1 "Thy two sisters, Isis and Nephthys, came to thee, Kam-urt, in thy name of Kam-ur, Uatchet-urt, in thy name of Uatch-ur" . . . . . . . "Isis and Nephthys weave magical protection for thee in the city of Saut, for thee their lord, in thy name of 'Lord of Saut,' for their god, in thy name of 'God.' They praise thee; go not thou far from them in thy name of 'Tua.' They present offerings to thee; be not wroth in thy name of 'Tchentru.' Thy sister Isis cometh to thee rejoicing in her love for thee. 2 Thou hast union with her, thy seed entereth her. She conceiveth in the form of the star Septet (Sothis). Horus-Sept issueth from thee in the form of Horus, dweller in the star Septet. Thou makest a spirit to be in him in his name 'Spirit dwelling in the god Tchentru.' He avengeth thee in his name of 'Horus, the son who avenged his father.' Hail, Osiris, Keb hath brought to thee Horus, he hath avenged thee, he hath brought to thee the hearts of the gods, Horus hath given thee his Eye, thou hast taken possession of the Urert Crown thereby at the head of the gods. Horus hath presented to thee thy members, he hath collected them completely, there is no disorder in thee. Thoth hath seized thy enemy and hath slain him and those who were with him." The above words are addressed to dead kings in the Pyramid

Texts, and what the gods were supposed to do for them was believed by the Egyptians to have been actually done for Osiris. These extracts are peculiarly valuable, for they prove that the legend of Osiris which was current under the XVIIIth Dynasty was based upon traditions which were universally accepted in Egypt under the Vth and VIth Dynasties.


The hymn concludes with a reference to the accession of Horus, son of Isis, the flesh and bone of Osiris, to the throne of his grandfather Keb, and to the welcome which he received from the Tchatcha, or Administrators of heaven, and the Company of the Gods, and the Lords of Truth, who assembled in the Great House of Heliopolis to acknowledge his sovereignty. His succession also received the approval of Neb-er-tcher, who, as we saw from the first legend in this book, was the Creator of the Universe.


Legends of the Gods The Egyptian Texts, edited with Translations by E. A. Wallis Budge

Chaos Magic

Chaos, according to the `Oxford English Dictionary' means:


1. A gaping void, yawning gulf, chasm, or abyss.


2. The `formless void' of primordial matter, the `great deep' or 'abyss' out of which the cosmos or order of the universe was evolved.


There are a couple of additional definitions, but they are irrelevant to this discussion. When chaos is used in magic, there is no place for confusion or disorder. Chaos is the creative principle behind all magic. When a magical ritual is performed, regardless of `tradition' or other variables in the elements of performance, a magical energy is created and put into motion to cause something to happen. In his book, `Sorcery as Virtual Mechanics', Stephen Mace cites a scientific precedent for this creative principle.

I quote:

"To keep it simple, let us confine our example to just two electrons, the pointlike carriers of negative charge. Let us say they are a part of the solar wind--beta particles, as it were--streaming out from the sun at thousands of miles a second. Say that these two came close enough that their negative charges interact, causing them to repel one another. How do they accomplish this change in momentum? "According to quantum electrodynamics, they do it by exchanging a "virtual" photon. One electron spawns it, the other absorbs it, and so do they repel each other. The photon is "virtual" because it cannot be seen by an outside observer, being wholly contained in the interaction. But it is real enough, and the emission and absorption of virtual photons is how the electromagnetic interaction operates.


"The question which is relevant to our purpose here is where does the photon come from. It does not come out of one electron and lodge in the other, as if it were a bullet fired from one rock into another. The electrons themselves are unchanged, except for their momenta. Rather, the photon is created out of nothing by the strain of the interaction. According to current theory, when the two electrons come close their waveforms interact, either cancelling out or reinforcing one another. Waveforms are intimately tied to characteristics like electric charge, and we could thus expect the charges on the two electrons to change. But electron charge does not vary; it is always 1.602 x (-19) coulombs. Instead the virtual photons appear out of the vacuum and act to readjust the system. The stress spawns them and by their creation is the stress resolved".


Austin Spare understood this principle in regard to magical phenomena long before scientists discovered photons or began experiments in the area of chaos science.

Austin Spare was born at midnight, Dec. 31st, 1886 in a London suburb called Snow Hill. His father was a London policeman, often on night duty. Spare showeda natural talent for drawing at an early age, and in 1901-1904 left school to serve an apprenticeship in a stained-glass works, but continued his education at Art College in Lambeth. In 1904 he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art. In that year he also exhibited a picture in the Royal Academy for the first time.


In 1905 he published his first book, `Earth Inferno'. It was primarily meant to be a book of drawings, but included commentaries that showed some of his insight and spiritual leanings. John Singer Sargent hailed him as a genius at age 17. At an unspecified time in his adolescence, Spare was initiated into a witch cult by a sorceress named Mrs. Patterson, whom Spare referred to as his "second mother". In 1908 he held an exhibition at Bruton Gallery. In 1910 he spent a short time as a member of the Golden Dawn. Becoming disenchanted with them, he later joined Crowley's Argentum Astrum. The association did not last long. Crowley was said to have considered Spare to be a Black Magician. In 1909 Spare began creation of the `Book of Pleasure'. In 1912 his reputation was growing rapidly in the art world. In 1913 he published the `Book of Pleasure'. It is considered to be his most important magical work, and includes detailed instructions for his system of sigilization and the "death postures" that he is well known for. 1914-1918 he served as an official war artist. He was posted to Egypt which had a great effect on him. In 1921, he published `Focus of Life', another book of drawings with his unique and magical commentaries.

In 1921-1924 Spare was at the height of his artistic success, then, in 1924 he published the `Anathema of Zos', in which he effectively excommunicated himself from his false and trendy artistic "friends" and benefactors. He returned to South London and obscurity to find the freedom to develop his philosophy, art and magic.


In 1947 Spare met Kenneth Grant and became actively involved with other well-known occultists of the period. In 1948-1956 he began work on a definitive Grimoire of the Zos Kia Cultus, which is referred to in his various writings. This is unfinished and being synthesized from Spare's papers by Kenneth Grant, who inherited all of Spare's papers. Much of this information was included in `Images and Oracles of Austin Osman Spare' by Kenneth Grant, but there are some unpublished works which Grant plans to publish after completion of his Typhonian series. References for this section are mostly from Christopher Bray's introduction to `The Collected Works of Austin Osman Spare' and from `Excess Spare', which is a compilation by TOPY of photocopied articles about Spare from various sources.


Spare's art and magic were closely related. It is reputed that there are messages in his drawings about his magical philosophy. One particular picture of Mrs. Patterson has reportedly been seen to move; the eyes opening and closing. Spare is best known for his system of using sigils. Being an artist, he was very visually oriented. The system basically consists of writing down the desire, preferably in your own magical alphabet, eliminating all repeated letters, then forming a design of the remaining single letters. The sigil must then be charged. There is a variety of specific ways to do this, but the key element is to achieve a state of "vacuity" which can be done through exhaustion, sexual release or several other methods. This creates a `vacuum' or `void' much like the condition described in the introduction to this discussion, and it is filled with the energy of the magician. The sigil, being now charged, must be forgotten so that the sub-conscious mind may work on it without the distractions and dissipation of energy that the conscious mind is subject to. Spare recognized that magic comes from the sub-conscious mind of the magician, not some outside `spirits' or `gods'.


Christopher Bray has this to say about Spare's methods in his introduction to `The Collected Works of Austin Osman Spare': "So in his art and writing, Spare is putting us in the mood; or showing by example what attitude we need to adopt to approach the `angle of departure of consciousness in order to enter the infinite. What pitch of consciousness we need to gain success. "One must beware making dogma, for Spare went to great pains to exclude it as much as possible to achieve success in his magic; however a number of basic assumptions underpin chaos magic. "Chaos is the universal potential of creative force, which is constantly engaged in trying to seep through the cracks of our personal and collective realities. It is the power of Evolution/Devolution.


"Shamanism is innate within every one of us and can be tapped if we qualify by adjusting our perception/attitude and making our being ready to accept the spontaneous. Achieving Gnosis, or hitting the `angle of departure of consciousness and time', is a knack rather than a skill." There are other methods to utilize the same concept that Spare explains for us. Magicians since Spare have written about their own methods and explanations of his method quite frequently in occult magazines, mostly in Great Britain. Spare is certainly not the first person in history to practice this sort of magic, but he is the one who has dubbed it (appropriately), Chaos.


Austin Spare died May 15, 1956, but his magic did not die with him. There have been select groups of magicians practicing versions of Chaos ever since, especially in Northern England and Germany. In 1976, a couple of dozen Chaos Magicians, including Peter J. Carroll and Ray Sherwin, announced the formation of a new magical Order, the Illuminates Of Thanateros. The intention of the group was to have an Order where degrees expressed attainment rather than authority, and hierarchy beyond just organizational requirements was non-existent. There are those who say that this lofty ambition has failed and that the Order has since slipped into a hierarchical power structure; Ray Sherwin "excommunicated" himself for this reason, but the Order continues and is identified as the only international Chaos organization to date. The IOT has since spread to America. There are smaller groups of Chaos practitioners, as well as individuals practicing alone. Chaos since Spare has taken on a life of its own. It will always continue to grow, that is its nature. It was only natural that eventually the world of science would begin to discover the physical principles underlying magic, although the scientists who are making these discoveries still do not realize that this is what they are doing. It is interesting that they have had the wisdom to call it chaos science...


In the abovw part of my series on Chaos, I've made scant reference to the IOT due to lack of information, however, in typical Murphy's Law fashion, a letter just arrived filling in some blank spots and pointing out to me that I made one mistake in chronology. The story goes; In 1977/78 Ray Sherwin was editor and publisher of a magazine called `The New Equinox', which Pete Carroll was a regular contributor to. Unsatisfied with the choices of available magical groups in England at the time, they formed the IOT. They advertised in `New Equinox' and the group formed and progressed as previously explained. Ray Sherwin dropped out before Pete Carroll went on to form `The Pact'. They are still friends, and Pete has graciously consented to write an introduction to Ray's newest edition of `The Book of Results' which will be available through TOPY soon.


Modern chaos science began in the 1960's when a handful of open- minded scientists with an eye for pattern realized that simple mathematical equations fed into a computer could model patterns every bit as irregular and "chaotic" as a waterfall. They were able to apply this to weather patterns, coastlines, all sorts of natural phenomena. Particular equations would result in pictures resembling specific types of leaves, the possibilities were incredible. Centers and institutes were founded to specialize in "non-linear dynamics" and "complex systems." Natural phenomena, like the red spot of Jupiter, could now be understood. The common catch-terms that most people have heard by now; strange attractors, fractals, etc., are related to the study of turbulence in nature. There is not room to go into these subjects in depth here, and I recommend that those who are interested in this subject read `Chaos: making a new science' by James Gleick and `Turbulent Mirror' by John Briggs & F. David Peat.


What we are concerned with here is how all this relates to magic. Many magicians, especially Chaos Magicians, have begun using these terms, "fractal" and "strange attractor", in their everyday conversations. Most of those who do this have some understanding of the relationship between magic and this area of science. To put it very simply, a successful magical act causes an apparently acausal result. In studying turbulence, chaos scientists have realized that apparently acausal phenomena in nature are not only the norm, but are measurable by simple mathematical equations. Irregularity is the stuff life is made of. For example, in the study of heartbeat rhythms and brain-wave patterns, irregular patterns are measured from normally functioning organs, while steady, regular patterns are a direct symptom of a heart attack about to occur, or an epileptic fit. Referring back again to "virtual" photons, a properly executed magical release of energy creates a "wave form" (visible by Kirlian photography) around the magician causing turbulence in the aetheric space. This turbulence will likely cause a result, preferably as the magician has intended. Once the energy is released, control over the phenomena is out of the magician's hands, just as once the equation has been fed into the computer, the design follows the path set for it.


The scientists who are working in this area would scoff at this explanation, they have no idea that they are in the process of discovering the physics behind magic. But then, many common place sciences of today, chemistry for example, were once considered to be magic. Understanding this subject requires, besides some reading, a shift in thinking. We are trained from an early age to think in linear terms, but nature and the chaos within it are non-linear, and therefore require non-linear thinking to be understood. This sounds simple, yet it reminds me of a logic class I had in college. We were doing simple Aristotelian syllogisms. All we had to do was to put everyday language into equation form. It sounds simple,and it is.


However, it requires a non-linear thought process. During that lesson over the space of a week, the class size dropped from 48 to 9 students. The computer programmers were the first to drop out. Those of us who survived that section went on to earn high grades in the class, but more importantly, found that we had achieved a permanent change in our thinking processes. Our lives were changed by that one simple shift of perspective. Chaos science is still in the process of discovery, yet magicians have been applying its principles for at least as long as they have been writing about magic. Once the principles of this science begin to take hold on the thinking process, the magician begins to notice everything from the fractal patterns in smoke rising from a cigarette to the patterns of success and failure in magical workings, which leads to an understanding of why it has succeeded or failed. There is a diagram of a fractal design on the cover of `Kaos' magazine #11 (now out of print) that would be a wonderful example of magic at work and the many paths that the energy may follow...


Chaos is not in itself, a system or philosophy. It is rather an attitude that one applies to one's magic and philosophy. It is the basis for all magic, as it is the primal creative force. A Chaos Magician learns a variety of magical techniques, usually as many as s/he can gain access to, but sees beyond the systems and dogmas to the physics behind the magical force and uses whatever methods are appealing to him/herself. Chaos does not come with a specific Grimoire or even a prescribed set of ethics. For this reason, it has been dubbed "left hand path" by some who choose not to understand that which is beyond their own chosen path. There is no set of specific spells that are considered to be `Chaos Magic spells'. A Chaos Magician will use the same spells as those of other paths, or those of his/ her own making. Any and all methods and information are valid, the only requirement is that it works. Mastering the role of the sub- conscious mind in magical operations is the crux of it, and the state called "vacuity" by Austin Osman Spare is the road to that end. Anyone who has participated in a successful ritual has experienced some degree of the `high' that this state induces. An understanding of the scientific principles behind magic does not necessarily require a college degree in physics (although it wouldn't hurt much, if the linear attitude drilled into the student could be by-passed), experience in magical results will bring the necessary understanding.


This series is directed toward the increasing numbers of people who have been asking, "What is Chaos Magic?" It is very basic and by no means intended to be a complete explanation of any of the elements discussed. Many of the principles of magic must be self-discovered, my only intent here is to try to define and pull together the various elements associated with Chaos Magic into an intelligible whole. For those who wish to learn more about this subject, I have prepared a suggested reading list for the last section, however, I must emphasize that there are always more sources than any one person knows about, so do not limit yourself to this list. Chaos has no limits...



Defining Chaos By: Mark Chao


A Healing Myth

This story can have a powerful healing effect when read out loud (or recorded and then played) to someone suffering from a phobia or other effect of childhood trauma. While names, settings, and style can be varied to suit individual tastes, the sequence which the apprentice describes, the sequence the princess goes through, and the vagueness of the "bad thing" descriptions should remain unchanged and no element of the story should be left out.


Once, in another time and another place, a kingdom of magic and beauty knew a time of peace. No armies threatened its borders, no bandits plundered its trade routes, no plagues sickened its people. Yet even in such peaceful times, bad things could happen: accidents, misunderstandings, even good people doing bad things.

The third daughter of the king was a bright and cheerful sort. She wasn't the strongest or the prettiest of the royal princesses, but she did have the nicest wings of anyone her age. She loved to fly around the countryside and explore the groves and meadows she found...they were always full of surprises.

One day she found a particularly pretty grove, with a pond glistening in a little clearing in the middle. As she went in for a closer look, she saw images start to form. She saw her own reflection, and as she lightly touched the ground she saw that her reflection was watching reflections of her own...dim watery reflections from her past.

"So you can see the pictures." The voice from among the trees made her jump. "Don't worry," continued the young man as he stepped out from among the trees, "nobody else can see the same images, Princess. It's part of the magic."

"How...?" she asked, looking him up and down. He was a young man, no older than the princess herself, dressed in the rough tunic of a wizard's apprentice. "Who are you? How did you know who I am, what I saw?"

"I am apprenticed to the Court Wizard. Everybody knows who you are, Princess...and besides, I have seen you at the palace when I have been there with my master." He paused, glancing at the ground and lowering his voice. "As to the images... well, at one time I had need of their magic."


"When I entered the Wizard's service, I had a great and secret fear. Something...bad...happened to me when I was younger. It hurt to even think about, and after time I didn't think about it much. But ever since that time, I had lived with the fear. When my master learned of this, he taught me the magic of this pool and its stream."

"The pool reflects images from your mind...scenes from your past, dreams of the future, even fantasies of the present. The stream flows like time itself, upstream into the past, and downstream into the future. If I followed the ritual he described, these magics could wash clean the fear."

She made a face. "I suppose this ritual involves deep magics usable only by Wizards?"

"Not really. All the magic is in the waters, and anyone can use the ritual. Even a lowly apprentice." He grinned. "It's pretty simple. After he told me about it, he brought me here and then stood back by the trees. He said that he would answer any questions I had but otherwise I was on my own."


"I stood where I could see my reflection in the pool, and then thought about my fear. As I thought, my reflection watched a reflection of my thoughts...like a stage where dimly lit actors played out the scene against a colorless backdrop. I looked up and saw that I was still here, in the glade. I looked back at the water, holding on to a small part of the special feeling of fear it had given me. As I turned and looked back upstream, I saw more images...each earlier than the last. I relaxed and let the feeling guide me back to the earliest image. When I had that, I turned back to the pool and found my reflection watching the same colorless players in their dim reflection of the memory. As my reflection watched, the image went from a time shortly before the bad thing happened, through the whole thing, and on to a time when it was all over. When it passed the ending that way, it stopped...like a drawing. Then the drawing faded away, and I was just looking at my reflection. The Wizard had told me that if I stepped into that last part of the image, it would run very quickly backwards, with full color and sound and me living backwards through it all...all the way through to the part before the beginning. It sounded very strange. As I looked at my reflection again, it was watching the image go forward again in its dim, colorless way. When it reached the drawing at the end, I stepped into the image and was plunged into a world going backwards! It went clear through to before the beginning in less than a second, then stopped. Startled, I let the water carry me downstream, through all that had happened since, with the fear gone and the memory unable to hurt me. When I reached the here-and-now, I got out and just stood there, knowing that the fear would trouble me no more." He stopped, and suddenly seemed to remember where he was, and who he was talking to. "That was over a year ago, and the fear is still gone. The Wizard says it is gone for good."


She thought for a moment. "So all there is to this ritual is think of the problem until your reflection sees it, follow a part of the feeling upstream to my earliest memory of it, wait for my reflection to see it all the way through, step into the ending, and live it backwards quickly? What kind of magic is that?"

He thought for a minute, shrugged, and said "Effective? If you wish, I will withdraw to the trees while you try it."

"What makes you think that I need it?"

"Because the images only come to those who do." His voice faded to an embarrassed silence as he realized what he had said. "I'll go now."


"Yes, do." She said absently, already thinking. Then: "But not too far, in case I need you." She was remembering an incident a few days back which had set off her special fear, and just as the apprentice had described, her reflection in the pool was watching a dim and watery scene of the memory. Startled, she looked up again. Yes, she was in the clearing, with the trees all around and the apprentice all but lost among the closer ones. She could still feel a part of that fear, so she kept that feeling while she looked back up stream at all the images from the past that the feeling had touched...until she found the earliest of them all. She brought that memory back to the pool and released it as her reflection started to watch it unfold in its dim and watery way. Her reflection seemed to have a life of its own as it watched the pale scene start before anything happened, run through the bad parts, and then pause at a time when it was all over. She watched her reflection shift as she prepared for what she would do. Her reflection settled as it watched the scene unfold again. The dim scene passed through the beginning, through the bad time and on past again. When it stopped, she jumped in to it. Suddenly, she was there again: back where and when it had happened. Everything was moving backwards, and in a flash she had lived backwards through it and past the beginning. Shocked, she let the water carry her down stream, forward through all the rest of her yesterdays without the bad times for company. When she got to today, she stood up. There she was...standing, dripping in a stream in the clearing. She looked around for the apprentice, half expecting him to be laughing at the soggy mess she must be. He was there, by the trees...not laughing, just smiling in an understanding way.


In the years that followed, they became friends. Although they went their separate ways...he, as wizard to one of the King's high lords and she as wife to a neighboring prince... they valued that friendship to the end of their days. And from that time on, neither was ever again troubled by their great fears.



A Healing Myth By "Nihasa"


OF THE COMING OF THE MAGI FROM PERSIA

WHEN Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judah, and the star appeared to the Magi in the east, twelve Persian kings took offerings--gold and myrrh and frankincense--and came to worship Him. Their names are these: Zarwândâd the son of Artabân2, and Hôrmîzdâd the son of Sîtârûk (Santarôk), Gûshnâsâph (Gushnasp) the son of Gûndaphar, and Arshakh the son of Mîhârôk; these four brought gold. Zarwândâd the son of Warzwâd, Îryâhô the son of Kesrô (Khosrau), Artahshisht the son of Holîtî, Ashtôn`âbôdan the son of Shîshrôn; these four brought myrrh. Mêhârôk the son of Hûhâm, Ahshîresh the son of p. 85 Hasbân, Sardâlâh the son of Baladân, Merôdâch the son of Beldarân; these four brought frankincense. Some say that the offerings which the Magi brought and offered to our Lord had been laid in the Cave of Treasures by Adam1; and Adam commanded Seth to hand them down from one to another until our Lord rose, and they brought (them), and offered (them) to Him. But this is not received by the Church. When the Magi came to Jerusalem, the whole city was moved; and Herod the king heard it and was moved. And he gathered together the chief priests and the scribes of the people, and enquired about the place in which Christ should be born; and they told him, in Bethlehem of Judah, for so it is written in the prophet2. Then Herod called the Magi, and flattered them, and commanded them to seek out the Child diligently, and when they had found Him to tell Herod, that he also might go and worship Him. When the Magi went forth from Herod, and journeyed along the road, the star rose again suddenly, and guided them until it came and stood over (the place) where the Child was. And when they entered the cave, and saw the Child with Mary His mother, they straightway fell down and worshipped Him, and opened their treasures, and offered unto Him offerings, gold and myrrh and frankincense. Gold for His kingship, and myrrh for His burial, and frankincense for His Godhead. And it was revealed to them in a dream that they should not return to Herod, and they went to their land by another way. Some say that the Magi took some of our Lord's swaddling bands with them as a blessed thing3.


Then Longinus the sage wrote to Augustus Caesar and said to him, 'Magians, kings of Persia, have come and entered thy kingdom, and have offered offerings to a child who is born in Judah; but who he is, and whose son he is, is not known to us.' Augustus Caesar wrote to Longinus, saying, 'Thou hast acted wisely in that thou hast made known to us (these things) and hast not hidden (them) from us.' He wrote also to Herod, and asked him to let him know the story of the Child. When Herod had made enquiries about the Child, and saw that he had been mocked by the Magi, he was wroth, and sent and slew all the children in Bethlehem and its borders, from two years old and downwards, according to the time which he had enquired of the Magi. The number of the children whom he slew was two thousand, but some say one thousand eight hundred. When John1 the son of Zechariah was sought for, his father took him and brought him before the altar; and he laid his hand upon him, and bestowed on him the priesthood, and then brought him out into the wilderness. When they could not find John, they slew Zechariah his father between the steps2 and the altar. They say that from the day when Zechariah was slain his blood bubbled up until Titus the son of Vespasian came and slew three hundred myriads of Jerusalem, and then the flow of blood ceased3. The father of the child Nathaniel also took him, and wrapped him round, and laid him under a fig-tree; and he was saved from slaughter. Hence our Lord said to Nathaniel, 'Before Philip called thee, I saw thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree.'



The Book of the Bee by Earnest A. Wallis Budge, M.A.

THE INDIVIDUAL NUMERALS

THE MONAD. 1.


The number One or the Monad has been defined by the mathematician Theon of Smyrna as "the principal and element of numbers, which while multitute can be lessened by subtraction, is itself deprived of every number and remains stable and firm"; hence as number it is indivisible, it remains immutable, and even multiplied into itself remains itself only, since once one is still one, and the monad multiplied by the monad remains the immutable monad to infinity. It remains by itself among numbers, for no number can be taken from it, or separated from its unity. Proclus observed: "The first monad is the world itself; the second is the inerratic sphere; then thirdly succeed the spheres of the planets, each a unity; then lastly are the spheres of the elements which are also Monads"; and these as they have a perpetual subsistence are called wholenesses—holotetes in Greek.


The Monad, Unity, or the number One received very numerous meanings. Photius tells us that the Pythagoreans gave it the following names:—


1. God, the First of all things, the maker of all things.

2. Intellect, the source of all ideas.

3. Male and Female—both together produce all things; from the odd proceed both odd and even.

4. Matter, the last development of universality.

5. Chaos, which resembles the infinite, indifferentiation.

6. Confusion. 7. Commixion. 8. Obscurity, because in the Ineffable principle of things, of which it is the image, all is confused, vague and in darkness.

9. A Chasm, as a void.

10. Tartarus, from its being at the lowest extremity, is dissimilarly similar to God, at the highest end of the series.

11. The Styx, from its immutable nature.

12. Horror, the ineffable, is perfectly unknown and is therefore terrible.

13. Void of Mixture, from the simplicity of the nature of the ineffable.

14. Lethe, oblivion, ignorance.

15. A Virgin, from the purity of its nature.

16. Atlas, it connects, supports, and separates all things.

17. The Sun. 18. Apollo. 19. Pyralios, dweller in fire. 20. Morpho. 21. The Axis. 22. Vesta, or the fire in the centre of the earth. 23. Spermatic Reason. 24. "The point within a circle," "the Central Fire Deity."


The lingam, an upright pillar, was its Hindoo symbol.

The Monad being esteemed the Father of numbers is the reason for the universal prejudice in favour of Odd Numbers over Even ones, which are but copies of the first even number the Dyad, or universal Mother; the father being more esteemed than the mother, for "Might."

Odd numbers were given to the greater Gods, and even ones to the inferior and terrestrial deities.

The number one is represented in the Roman and Arabic systems, by an upright simple line, but in many old systems whose numerals were their letters, we find that almost universally the letter A, from being chosen to commence the set of letters, had the task of representing the Monad.

In Numeration, note that the Romans began with lines, I, II, III, IIII, and then followed the Acute Angle V for 5, then for ten this was doubled X, for fifty the angle was laid down and became L, for a hundred, two fifties, one inverted became C, for five hundred C and L became D.


Hermias, the Christian philosopher, author of "Ridicule of the Gentile Philosophers," quotes from the Pythagoreans; "The Monad is the Beginning of all things"—"arche ton panton he monas."


The figure of one signifies identity, equality, existence and preservation, it signifies living man" alone among animals "erect"; on adding a head we make of it P, the sign of creative Power (paternity, phallus, Pan, the Greek gods and Priapus, all commencing with the vocable P).

Another dash added, and we have man walking, advancing, with foot set forward, in the letter R, which signifies "fens," "iturus," or "advancing."

Compare Unity, solus, alone, the unique principle of good; with Sol, Sun God, the emblem of supreme power; and they are identical.

The Hebrew word for One is AChD, achad, and it is often put for God; God's One voice to man is the Bath Kol, the echo or daughter of the Divine Voice.

The Talmud in Berachoth vi. 1 says that the Shekinah shall rest even upon One who studies the Law. One pang of remorse is of more avail for reformation than many stripes.

One thing obtained with difficulty is more valued than a hundred obtained with ease. Talmud.


It is indiscreet for one man to sleep in a house alone, for fear that he may be attacked by Lilith, who was said to have been Adam's first wife; she is the Night Spectre, and has also power over newly-born infants who are not protected by an Amulet.

Rabbi Nathan exhorted—"Repent One day before thy death"; a wise maxim inculcating the duty of being ever prepared; every day some advance in knowledge and goodness should be attained.

Ever work and ever pray, "for the road winds upward all the way," as the Lord Buddha taught in ancient India.



Numbers, Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott

THE NAME ΙΑΩ.

Diodorus Siculus, when enumerating the different legislators of antiquity, says, "Amongst the Jews Moses pretended that the god surnamed Iao gave him his laws" (i. 94). And this is elucidated by the remark of Clemens Alexandrinus, that the Hebrew Tetragrammaton, or Mystic Name, is pronounced ΙΑΟϒ, and signifies "He that is and shall be." Theodoret states that the same four letters were pronounced by the Samaritans as ΙΑΒΕ (Jave); by the Jews as ΙΑΩ. Jerome (upon Psalm viii. says, "The Name of the Lord" amongst the Hebrews is of four letters, Iod, He, Vau, He, which is properly the Name of God, and may be read as ΙΑΗΟ (Iaho) (that is in Latin characters), which is held by the Jews for unutterable. The author of the 'Treatise on Interpretations' says, "The Egyptians express the name of the Supreme Being by the seven Greek vowels ΙΕΗΩΟϒΑ": * which sufficiently explains the mighty potency ascribed to this formula by the inspired author of the 'Pistis-Sophia,' and equally so its frequent appearance upon the talismans now under consideration.


Rabbi Tarphon (Tryphon), who could remember the Second Temple, noticed that the Ineffable Name, though occurring a hundred times in the course of the daily service, was "rathe warbled than pronounced." A precious hint this, as indicating how the Gnostic strings of boneless vowels give an approximation to the audible and yet unuttered sound. Since the destruction of the Temple, the Name has never been heard in prayer, or pronounced aloud. It is communicated, indeed, to every Rabbi, after his ordination, but not in full. One half of it is told; the rest he is left to make out for himself.

The first idea of an "Ineffable Name," and all its inherent virtues, evidently came to the Egyptians (from whom the Jews borrowed it) from the Hindoo doctrine respecting the title AUM,--itself, like the ΑΙΩ, trilateral--representing the Triad, Brahma-Vishnu-Siva: A standing for the Creator, U for the Preserver, M for the Destroyer. The connection between Indian and Egyptian mythology is certain, however difficult to account for, the names of the principal deities in the latter having the appearance of pure Sanscrit. Thus Isis signifies in that tongue the Mistress; Tat and Sat, Virtue and Power; Serapis, Sripa, the Blood-drinker; Nila, Blue-water, &c. The original identity of the two religious systems no one can doubt who has intelligently studied the monuments of each: but which country instructed the other?


The balance of probabilities is strongly in favour of India, the confinement of the peculiar system within the narrow limits of Egypt betokening an importation by a colony from some very remote source. Traces of a very ancient intercourse between the two countries are discernible, though very dimly, in history. The Periplus of the Red Sea mentions that as late as Cæsar's time the town Endæmon on that coast was the entrepôt where the Indian and Egyptian traders used annually to meet. In prehistoric times therefore it is conceivable that Brahminical missionaries may have laboured amongst the aborigines of the Valley of the Nile. This religious analogy manifests itself in the meanest details, in the sacred titles as well as attributes. For example, as the Brahmins teach that each of the letters A, U, M envelops a great mystery, so does the Pistis-Sophia ('Prayers of the Saviour,' § 358) interpret the Ι, Α, Ω, as the summary of the Gnostic, or Valentinian, creed. "Ι signifies All goeth out; Α, All returneth within; Ω, There shall be an end of ends": thus expressing the grand doctrines of the Emanation, the Return, and the Annihilation, or rather reabsorption, of the Universe.


To turn now to Greece--in the same way as Abraxas is no other than a numerical title of the Solar god, so does Iao actually make its appearance as an epithet of the same divinity. Macrobius (Sat. i. 18), whilst labouring to prove that the Sun-worship was in truth the sole religion of Paganism, under whatever name it was disguised, gives a notice very much to our purpose. The Apollo of Claros, when consulted as to the true nature of the god called Ἰαὸς, gave the following response:--


"The sacred things ye learn, to none disclose,
 A little falsehood much discretion shows;
 Regard Iaos as supreme above,
 In winter Pluto, in spring's opening Jove,
 Phœbus through blazing summer rules the day,
 Whilst autumn owns the mild Iaos’  sway."


Here we find Iao expressly recognised as the title of the Supreme God whose physical representative is the Sun. Again we have Dionysos or Bacchus added to the list by Orpheus, who sings A distinct recognition this of the grand principle of Brahminism--that all the different deities are but representations of the different attributes of the One. The same truth is curiously expressed upon a talisman (Hertz collection) which at the same time sets forth the triune nature of the Supreme Being whose visible type is the Sun. It is a heart-shaped piece of basalt engraved with seated figures of Ammon and Ra (the Zeus and Helios of the Greeks), with the sacred Asp erect between them. The reverse bears the invocation neatly cut in characters of the third century--


ΕΙC ΒΑΙΤ ΕΙC ΑΘΩΡ ΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΒΙΑ ΕΙC ΔΕ ΑΧΩΡΙ
ΧΑΙΡΕ ΠΑΤΕΡ ΚΟCΜΟϒ ΧΑΙΡΕ ΤΡΙΜΟΡΦΕ ΘΕΟC


"There is One Bäit, One Athor, their power is one and the same, there is One Achori. Hail Father of the universe, hail God under three forms!" Concerning the three figures a word is necessary in explanation of their titles. As for the hawk-head Ra, Horapollo gives for reason of the type: "The hawk stands for the Supreme Mind, and for the intelligent soul. The hawk is called in the Egyptian language 'Baieth,' from bai soul, and eth heart, which organ they consider the seat or inclosure of the soul." A sufficient explanation this for the shape in which the talisman is formed. Achoreus, the virtuous priest-councillor of the last of the Ptolemies (see Lucan), derives his name from the sacred serpent here invoked.

That Iaos was recognised by the Greeks as an epithet for the Sun in the autumnal quarter has been shown from Macrobius. The philosophical interpreters of the ancient mythology discovered in Dionysos also a mere type of the same luminary. "One is Zeus, Hades, Helios, and Dionysos." And Serapis is substituted for the last in an oracle quoted by Julian: nor must it be forgotten that the main object of Macrobius in the above-quoted dissertation is to prove, that Serapis is a representative of the various powers of the Solar deity all combined in one figure. Again, to the same effect, comes Virgil's famous apostrophe where "Bacchus" and "Ceres" do no more than interpret Osiris and Isis, the Sun and Moon. Here lies the reason for equipping Bacchus with horns in some of his statues.

"Accedant capiti cornua Bacchus eris," says Sappho to Phaon. For in Hebrew a radiated and a horned head is expressed by the same word. When Moses came down from the Mount, "cornuta erat facies ejus," according to the version of the Vulgate; and on the strength of this mistranslation Christian art hath ever graced the Jewish lawgiver with these appendages.


In this very title Iao undoubtedly lies the origin of the universal persuasion of the ancients that the Jehovah of the Jews--whose name was thus expressed in Greek letters--was no other than the Egyptian Bacchus. For this notion they found strong support in the Golden Vine which formed the sole visible decoration of the Temple; in the "blowing the trumpets at the New Moon," and the custom of keeping the Feast of Tabernacles in huts made of leafy boughs, accompanied with many of the ceremonies used at the Grecian Dionysia: "Quia sacerdotes eorum tibia tympanis concinebant, hedera vinciebantur, vitisque aurea templo reperta" (Tacit. Hist. v. 5.) This opinion as to the real nature of the Jewish worship Tacitus quotes as the one generally held by the learned of his own times, although he cannot bring himself to accept it as satisfactory--although merely on the grounds that the gloomy and unsocial character of the religion seemed to disprove its relationship to the merry worship of the "god of wine," the only character in which the Romans recognised Bacchus. Nevertheless this ancient theory has found supporters in modern times, notably in the overlearned Dr. Stanley, rector of St. George the Martyr, who (without giving much scandal to his own easy-going generation) advocated this heterodox opinion in an elaborate treatise which puts to shame the boldest flights of the 'Essays and Reviews,' or even the interpretations of our indiscreet apostle to the Zulus. Ludicrously enough, the German Jews still celebrate the Feast of Purim, and the Fall of Haman, by getting as royally drunk as their means afford, and thus to the present day do their best to perpetuate the old Roman aspersion. Amongst the later Gnostics, indeed, some rites were unmistakably borrowed from the Bacchanalia, singularly modified by Christian doctrine. Epiphanius relates (Hæres. xxxvii.) how that "they kept a tame serpent in a chest or sacred ark, and piled loaves upon a table before the same, and then called upon the serpent to come forth. Whereupon, opening of himself the ark, he would come forth, mount upon the table, and twine about the loaves, which they broke in pieces, and distributed amongst the worshippers, calling this their 'Perfect Sacrifice' and their 'Eucharist.'"


Another explanation as to the true character of the god named Iao must not be passed over in silence, however little foundation it may have in truth, seeing that it is supported by the authority of the learned historian of Gnosticism, Jacques Matter. The Moon to the Egyptians, as to the Orientals of to-day, was of the masculine gender, and was designated by the phonetic name Aah or Ioh. Thoth was sometimes identified with this deity; and therefore Thoth's emblem, the ibis, accompanied with the crescent, bears the legend Ioh, "because (says Plutarch) Mercury attends the Moon in her journey round the earth in the same way as Hercules Both the Sun." When Thoth, Tat, appears as Mercury he has the head of an ibis; but in his character of the Moon-god, or Deus Lunus, he shows the face of a man supporting the lunar crescent enclosing the sun's disk and surmounted by a double plume.

Hence came the notion mentioned by Plutarch, that "the Egyptians call the Moon the Mother of Creation, and say it is of both sexes": and to the same effect Spartian (Caracalla, vii.) explains that the Egyptians in the mysteries (mystice) call the Moon a male, though designating it a female in ordinary speech. He adds that the people of Carrhal (famed for its great temple of Deus Lunus) hold that "whatsoever man thinks the moon should be called of the feminine gender shall pass his life a slave unto women, whereas he that holds it to be a male deity shall rule over his wife and be secured against all female treachery." A very sufficient reason this for the fondness of Spartian's contemporaries for wearing in their signet rings the vera effigies of the Carrhene god, a youth in a Phrygian cap, his bust supported on the crescent that gives his name. This elegant effeminate lunar genius is in truth no other than the modernized and tasteful version of the grim old Assyrian "Sin," pictured in the Ninevitish monuments as an aged man leaning on his staff as he floats through the heavens on the crescent, presenting a ludicrous resemblance to our popular idea of the "Man in the Moon." A blue calcedony in my possession fully illustrates Plutarch's title of "Mother of Creation.


" It exhibits a perfect hermaphrodite figure wearing the Egyptian head-dress, and squatting down so as more clearly to display its bisexual nature: below creeps a snail surmounted by a butterfly, the well-understood emblems of lasciviousness and life, the fount of propagation.

All this brings us to Matter's theory (based on a statement of Origen's), that Iao, Adonai, Sabaoth signified the genii of the Moon, the Sun, and the Planets--being far inferior in power and even antagonistic to Abraxas, who is the actual representative of the Supreme Source of Light. Matter therefore explains the warlike attitude in which the Abraxas-god is regularly depicted as declaring his office of scaring away the Adversary, or demon, Iao, who is expressed by his name alone, placed in the lowest part of the scene, to denote his inferiority. But the authority of the monuments themselves is more than sufficient to upset such an interpretation of the meaning given to them by the actual manufacturers. The doctrine mentioned by Origen was, it cannot be denied, that of the more recent sect, which set itself above all old Egyptian or Hebrew tradition: but it most assuredly was not of the immense body of primitive Kabbalistic Gnostics who excogitated and put their trust in the sigils that they have bequeathed to us in such fantastical profusion. These talisman-makers evidently held Thoth and Moses in equal reverence: they had nothing to do with the Valentinians, who had an obvious motive for exalting their newly-invented invisible Tetrad, by so immeasurably degrading below it the most venerated names of the old religion. The Valentinians were Greeks by education, really drawing their inspiration from Pythagoras and Plato, and only too well pleased with the opportunity of venting their natural spite upon the most cherished ideas of the Alexandrine Kabbalists, the grand fabricants of our talismans, those veritable "Pierres d’Israel."


The Pistis-Sophia continually introduces, as a most important actor in its scenes of the judgment and purification of the soul, "the great and good Iao, ruler of the Middle Sphere," who when he looks down into the places of torment causes the souls therein imprisoned to be set at liberty. The very collocation of the words on our talismans clearly denotes that AdonaiSabaoth, are equally with Abraxas the titles of Iao, who is the god actually represented by the symbolical figure these

words accompany. What else would be the motive for their collocation in a prayer like this (on a gem published by Matter himself)--"Iao, Abraxas, Adonai, Holy Name, Holy Powers, * defend Vibia Paulina from every evil spirit"? And, again, these same names perpetually occur united together, and followed by the address ΑΒΛΑΝΑΘΑΝΑΛΒΑ, "Thou art our Father"; CΕΜΕC ΕΙΛΑΜ, "Eternal Sun"; a mode of adoration that could not possibly have been applied to beings of a discordant, much less of an antagonistic, nature to each other. Besides, if Abraxas were the opponent and ultimate destroyer of Iao, it would have been absurd to put the names of the two in such close union, the latter even taking precedence; each, too, being equally invoked in the accompanying prayer, and honoured with the same epithets of majesty. Moreover the composite figure, or Pantheus, which, as all writers agree, represents the actual god Abraxas, is much more frequently inscribed with the name ΙΑΩ than with ΑΒΡΑCΑΞ; and nevertheless, though the former name stands alone, it is followed by the same glorification, "Thou art our Father," &c., as when the two names are engraved in juxtaposition. It is moreover quite opposed to all the rules of symbolism to represent the one actor in a scene by his proper figure or emblem, and to indicate the other by the simple letters of his name: and equally repugnant to common sense to depict the figure of the god with the name of his adversary placed in the most conspicuous portion of the tableau. The absurdity is as great as though in Christian art one should paint a Crucifix with Satan's name in the place of the holy I . N . R . I, and give for explanation the hostility of the two personages. And lastly, it has been already shown that the numerical or Kabbalistic value of the name Abraxas directly refers to the Persian title of the god, "Mithras," Ruler of the year, worshipped from the earliest times under the apellation of Iao. 


Matter himself publishes (Pl. iii. 2) a gem that should have convinced him of his error, had he not overlooked the force of its legend. The type is Horus seated on the lotus, inscribed ΑΒΡΑCΑΞ ΙΑΩ--an address exactly parallel to the so frequent ΕΙC ΖΕϒC CΑΡΑΠΙ on the contemporary Heathen gems; and therefore only to be translated by "Abraxas is the One Jehovah."

The "Great Name" with its normal titles is often to be observed interpolated by a Gnostic hand upon works of a better period and creed, but whose subjects were fancied analogous to the ideas conveyed by the Iao Pantheus: such as Phœbus in his car, the Lion--House of the Sun, the Sphinx emblem of royalty, and the Gorgon's Head of the Destructive Force, or of Providence. * But the most interesting of such adopted types that has come to my knowledge, as unmistakably pointing out the deity really understood by the name Abraxas, is a work discovered by myself amongst the miscellanea of a small private collection (Bosanquet). In this we behold the familiar Pantheus with head of cock, cuirassed body, and serpent-legs brandishing the whip and driving the car of Sol,  in the exact attitude of its proper occupant, Phœbus. In the exergue is the salutation CΑΒΑΩ, "Glory unto thee": on the reverse, in a cartouche formed by a coiled asp--precisely as the Hindoos write the Ineffable Name AUM--are engraved the titles ΑΒΡΑCΑΞ, attesting that one deity alone is meant, and that one to be the Ruler of the Sun.



The Gnostics and Their Remains, by Charles William King


RELATION OF THE KABBALAH TO THE RELIGION OF THE CHALDEANS AND PERSIANS

Were we to find within the present circumscribed limits of our investigation a people, distinguished by its civilization as well as by its political power, which exercised an immediate and lasting influence upon the Hebrews, we could evidently find within the bosom of such a people the solution of the problem we have raised. We find these conditions complied with, even beyond the unreasonable demands of the critic, in the Chaldeans and Persians who were united into one nation by the arms of Cyrus and by the religion of Zoroaster. And, indeed, can we think of a more appropriate event in the life of a people that could change its moral constitution and modify its ideas and customs as the memorable exile that has been called the Babylonian captivity? Is it possible that the seventy years sojourn of the Israelites, priests and laymen, teachers and common people, in the land of their conquerors, exerted no influence on either side? We have already cited a talmudical passage wherein the elders of the synagogue openly acknowledge that their ancestors brought with them from the land of their exile the names of the angels, the names of the months and even the letters of the alphabet.



It is impossible to suppose that the names of the months were not accompanied by certain astronomical knowledge, 1 probably of such a nature as we have met in the Sefer Yetzirah, and that the names of the angels were separated from the entire celestial and infernal hierarchy adopted by the Magi. It has also long since been noted that Satan appears for the first time in the sacred writings in the story of the Chaldean Job. 2 This rich and learned mythology, which has been adopted by the Talmud and spread in the Mishnah, constitutes also the poetical part and, if I may use the expression, the outer cover of the Zohar. But we do not wish to insist upon this long known fact. Disregarding the Chaldeans, who left no visible or reliable trace, and who, besides, were morally and materially conquered by the Persians before the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, we shall prove the presence, if not of the most general principles, but of nearly all the elements of the Kabbalah in the Zend Avesta and the religious commentaries depending upon it.

We wish to remark, incidentally, that this vast and admirable monument which has been known to us for more than a century, at this epoch, when we so eagerly follow up all sources, did not yet render all the service to historic philosophy--the true science of the human mind--which the latter justly expects of it. We do not pretend to fill the gap; but we hope to show the trans-mission of ideas between Persia and Judea, as we have already done in part, with reference to Judea and Alexandria.


We must first point out that all chronologists, whether Jewish or Christian, 3 agree that the first deliverance of the Israelites who remained captives in Chaldea since Nebuchadnezzar (Ezra, I, 1) took place during the first years of the reign of Cyrus over Babylon, 536 to 530 before the Christian era. The divergence of opinion confines itself to this very limited period. If we are to believe the calculations of Anquetil-Dupperon, 4 Zoroaster had already commenced his religious mission in 549, that is at least fourteen years before the first return of the captive Hebrews to their fatherland. Zoroaster was then forty years old; the most brilliant epoch of his life had begun, and continued until 539. During these ten years Zoroaster converted to his law the entire court and kingdom of king Gustasp, believed to have been Hystaspis, father of Darius. During these ten years the reputation of the new prophet dismayed even the brahmins of India, and when one of these came to the court of Gustasp for the purpose of overpowering the one he called impostor, he and all that were with him were compelled to yield to the irresistible power of their adversary. From 539 to 524, finally, Zoroaster openly taught his religion in the capital of the Babylonian empire, which he converted entirely by connecting wisely his own teachings with the already existing traditions. 5

Is it reasonable to suppose that the Israelites, who witnessed such a revolution, and returned to their fatherland at a time when that revolution spread its most vivid brilliancy and, consequently, must have left the strongest impression upon their minds--is it possible, I say, that they took with them no trace of it, not even in their most secret opinions and ideas?


Must not the great question of the origin of evil, which until then remained untouched by Judaism, and which is, so to speak, the centre and starting point of the religion of the Persians, must it not have acted powerfully upon the imagination of these people of the Orient, who were accustomed to explain everything by divine intervention and to ascend in similar problems to the source of things? It can not be argued that because they were crushed under the weight of their misfortune they remained strangers to all that happened around them in the land of their exile. The Scriptures themselves point to them with some satisfaction as being instructed in all the sciences and, consequently, in all the ideas of their conquerors, and admitted with the latter to the highest dignities of the empire.

This is just the character of Daniel, Zerubabel and Nehemia, 6 the two latter playing such an active part in the deliverance of their brethren. But this is not all. Besides forty thousand people who returned to Jerusalem under Zerubabel, a second emigration, headed by Ezra, took place under the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, about seventy years after the first emigration. During this interval the religious reform of Zoroaster had time to spread to all parts of the Babylonian empire, and to take deep root in the minds of the people. From the return to their land until the conquest by Alexander the Great the Jews always remained the subjects of the Persian kings. And even after this event, until their total dispersion, they seemed to have looked upon the Euphrates, the banks of which they once bathed with their tears, as their second fatherland when their eyes and minds turned to Jerusalem. The Babylonian Synagogue arose under the civil and religious influence of the "Heads of Captivity" (‏ריש גלותה‎--Raysh G’lutho), and it co-operated with the one in Palestine for the definite organization of Rabbinic Judaism. 


Wherever they found an asylum, at Sura, at Pompadita and at Nehardea, they founded religious schools which flourished no less than those of the metropolis. Among the teachers who sprang from their midst we mention Hillel the Babylonian, who died about forty years before the advent of Christ, and who was the teacher of that Yohanan ben Zakai who played such a great role in the Kabbalistic stories previously quoted. These same schools produced also the Babylonian Talmud, the final and most complete expression of Judaism. From the enumeration of these facts alone we may conclude that no nation exerted upon the Jews such deep influence as the Persians; that no moral power could have penetrated so deeply into their spirit as the religious system of Zoroaster with its long train of traditions and commentaries.

But all doubt vanishes when we pass from the purely external relations to a comparison of the ideas which represent in the two nations the most exalted results and the very foundations of their respective civilizations. However, to avoid the suspicion that we have founded beforehand the origin of the Kabbalah upon isolated and purely incidental resemblances, we shall point out in a few words and by some examples the influence of the Persian religion upon Judaism in general, before demonstrating all the elements of the Kabbalistic system in the Zend Avesta. Far from being a digression, this part of our research will contribute no little to the strengthening of our opinion, and I hasten to add that I do not at all intend to speak of the fundamental dogmas of the Old Testament. For, since Zoroaster himself continually refers to traditions much older than he, it is not necessary, yes, it is even not permissible from the standpoint of impartial criticism, to regard the following as having been borrowed from his doctrine: the six days of the creation, so easily recognized in the six Gahanbars; 8 the earthly paradise and the ruse of the demon who, in the shape of a serpent, kindled the revolt in the soul of our first parents; 9 the terrible punishment and the increasing forfeiture of the latter who, after having lived like angels, were obliged to cover themselves with the skins of animals, to wrest the metals from the bowels of the earth and to invent all the arts by which we subsist; 10 finally, the last judgment with its accompanying terrors, with the resurrection in spirit and flesh.


11 All these beliefs are found, it is true, in just as explicit a form in the Bundehesh 12 and in the Zend Avesta as in Genesis; 13 but we repeat again that we are fully convinced that the source is to be looked for at a much earlier age. 'We can not say the same of Rabbinical Judaism, which is much more modern than the religion of Zoroaster. The traces of Parseeism are here, as we shall soon ascertain, very visible, and we shall soon see what light can be thrown upon the origin of the Kabbalah when we keep in mind that the oldest teachers of this mysterious science are also counted among the doctors of the Mishnah and among the most venerated elders of the Synagogue.

When side by side with the wisest maxims on the application of life, when alongside the most consoling thoughts on mercy and divine justice, we find also in Judaism traces of the darkest superstition, we must look for the cause of these, especially in the terror instilled by its demonology. The power the latter ascribes to the evil spirits (‏שדים‎--Shaydim, ‏רוחות‎--Ruheth) is so great that at every moment of his life man may think himself surrounded by invisible enemies who are set upon the loss of his body as well as of his soul. Man is not yet born, and they await him already at the cradle to contend with him for God and the tenderness of a mother. Hardly may he see the light of this world, when they assail his head with a thousand perils, and his thoughts with a thousand impure visions. In short, woe to him if he does not resist forever! For, before life has yet completely left the body, they come to take possession of their prey.


Now then, in all ideas of such a nature there is a perfect similarity between the Jewish traditions and the Zend Avesta. According to this latter monument the demons or the devils, those children of Ahriman and darkness, are just as numerous as the creatures of Ormuzd. There are more than a thousand species who present themselves under all kinds of forms, and who wander over the earth to spread disease and sickness among man. 14 "Where," asks Zoroaster of Ormuzd, "is the place of the male, where the place of the female devis; where roam the devis in mobs from fifty, from a hundred, from a thousand, from ten thousand, and, finally, from all sides? . . .  15 Destroy the devis that enfeeble man and those that produce sickness, those that carry off the human heart as the wind sweeps away the clouds." (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 113.)

This is the way the Talmud expresses itself on the same subject: "Abba Benjamin said: 'No creature could withstand the evil creatures (‏מזיקין‎--Mazikin), had the eye the faculty of seeing them.' Abbaye adds: "They are more numerous than we, and surround us as a ditch surrounds a field." "Every one of us," says Rab Hunna, 16 "has a thousand of them to the left and ten thousand to the right side. When we feel ourselves pressed in a crowd, it is because of their presence; when our knees give way under our body, they alone are the cause; when we feel as though our extremities had been broken, it is to them again that we must attribute this suffering." 17 "The devis," says the Zend Avesta, "unite with one another and reproduce themselves as man does." (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 336.) But they reproduce themselves also through our own impurities, through the disgraceful acts of self-abuse, and even through the involuntary licentiousness provoked by a voluptuous thought during sleep.


According to the Talmud the demons resemble the angels in three things, and in three other things they resemble man. Like the angels they read the future, have wings and fly in a moment from one end of the world to the other; but they eat, drink, reproduce and die as man does. 18 Furthermore, they all originated from the lascivious dreams that troubled the nights of our first father during the years passed in solitude, 19 and the same cause even today produces the same effect in his descendents. 20 Certain formulated prayers, therefore, were adopted by Jews and Parsees, whose power is to avert such calamity. 21 The same phantoms, the same terrors, finally, besiege these as well as the others at their last moment.

Man scarcely dies, say the Zend books, when he is taken possession of and questioned by the demons. (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 164.) The Daroudj (the demon) Nesosh comes in the form of a fly, places himself upon the head and beats him mercilessly. (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 316.) The soul, separated from the body, arrives then at the bridge Tchinevad, which separates our world from the invisible world; there it is judged by two angels, one of whom is Mithra, of colossal proportions, with ten thousand eyes, and holding a club in his hand. 22 The rabbis, retaining the same basic idea, picture it still more frightfully. "When man," they say, "who is about to leave this world, opens his eyes, he notices in his house an extraordinary light, and standing before him he sees the angel of the Lord clothed in light, his body studded with eyes and his hand holding a flaming sword. At the sight of this the dying man is seized with fright which. permeates his body and spirit. His soul flees gradually to all the extremities, as one desiring to change his place. But when he comes to know that it is impossible for him to escape, he looks into the face of the one standing before him and delivers himself entirely into his power. If the dying man is a righteous one, the divine presence (Shekinah) appears to him and the soul soon disappears beyond the body." 23


This first test is followed by another, which is called the torture or the ordeal of the grave (‏היבוט הקבר‎--; Hibut Hakover). 24 "As soon as the dead is put in his grave, the soul unites again with him, and opening his eyes, he sees two 25 angels who come to judge him. Each holds in his hand two fiery rods (others say fiery chains), and the soul and the body are judged at the same time for the evil they have done together. Woe to the man when he is found guilty, for no one will defend him! At the first blow all his limbs are dislocated; at the second, all his bones are broken. But his body is soon reconstructed and the punishment begins anew." 26

We must value these traditions the more, since they have been taken nearly literally from the Zohar, from where they passed into the purely rabbinical writings and into the popular collections. We can add to these beliefs a host of religious customs and practices, equally commanded by the Talmud and the Zend Avesta. Thus the Parsee, when leaving his bed in the morning, must not make four steps before having put on the holy girdle which is called the Kosti, 27 under the pretext that during the night he had been contaminated by contact with the demons, and he must not touch any part of his body before having washed his hands and face three times. 28 We shall find the same duties, based upon the same reasons, with the followers of the rabbinical law; 29 with the difference that the Kosti is replaced by a garment of another shape. The disciples of Zoroaster and the followers of the Talmud consider themselves duty bound to greet the moon at its first quarter with prayers 30 and thanksgivings. 31 The practice of keeping from the dead or from the newborn the demons who try to take possession of them, are nearly the same with both. 32


The Parsee as well as the Jew carry their devotion, if I may say so, even to profanation. There are prayers and religious duties for every moment, for every action, for every situation of the physical and moral life. 33 Although we do not lack material for further expansion on this subject, 34 we think it time to finish this parallel. But even the fantastic and eccentric facts which we have collected lend greater certainty to the conclusion which we draw from them. For it is surely not in such beliefs and in such actions that we can invoke the general laws of the human mind. We believe, though, we have demonstrated that the religion, that is to say the civilization of ancient Persia, left numerous traces in all parts of Judaism; in its celestial mythology as represented by the angels; in its infernal mythology, and, finally, in the practice of the outward cult. Are we now to believe that its philosophy, that is, the Kabbalah, alone escaped this influence? Is such an opinion probable, when we know that the Kabbalistic tradition developed in the same manner, in the same time, and, like the oral law of the Talmudic tradition, it rests upon the same names? Far be it from us to content ourselves with a simple conjecture, no matter how well founded, on a subject of such a grave nature. We shall take up one by one all the essential elements of the Kabbalah, and show their perfect resemblance with the metaphysical principles of the religion of Zoroaster. This method of procedure, although not very learned, must appear at least as most impartial.


1. The part played in the Kabbalah by the Ayn Sof, the infinite without name and without form, is given by the theology of the Magi to eternal time (Zervane Akerene), and, according to others, to limitless space. 35 We want to note right here that the term "space" or "absolute place" (‏מקום‎--Mokaum) has become with the Hebrews the very name of the divinity. Furthermore, this first principle, this only and supreme source of all existence, is only an abstract God, without direct action upon the beings, without active relation to the world, and consequently, without any appreciable form to us; for good as well as evil, light as well as darkness are still huddled together in His bosom. 36 According to the sect of the Zervanites, whose opinion has been conserved by a Persian historian, 37 the principle we just mentioned, Zervan himself, would be, like the crown of the Kabbalists, but the first emanation of the infinite light.


2. The "Memra" of the Chaldean translators is easily recognized in the following words by which Ormuzd himself defines the "Honover" or the creative word: "The pure, the holy, the speedy Honover, I tell it to you, O wise Zoroaster! was before the heavens, before the waters, before the earth, before the herds, before the trees, before the fire, the son of Ormuzd, before the pure man, before the devis, before all the existing worlds, before all the good things." But the very same word Ormuzd created the world, and by it he acts and exists. (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 138.) But the word existed not only before the world; although "given by God,"--as the Zend books say-- 38 it is eternal as He is. It takes the part of mediator between limitless time and the existences that flow from its bosom. It embraces the source and model of all perfection, and has the power to realize them in all beings. 39 What establishes, finally, its resemblance with the Kabbalistic "Word," is that it has a body and a spirit, that is to say, that it is the Spirit and the Word at the same time. It is the Spirit, because it is no less than the soul of Ormuzd, as he himself expressly said; (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 415) it is the Word or the body, that is to say the spirit become visible, because it is at the same time the law and the universe. (Zend Av., vol. III, p. 325, 595.)


3.. In Ormuzd we find something that resembles fully what the Zohar calls "person" or "face" (‏פרצוף‎--Partsuf). He, Ormuzd, is in fact the highest personification of the creative word, of that "excellent word" of which his soul is made. It is in him also rather than in the highest principle, in the eternal time, that we are to look for the union of all the attributes ordinarily ascribed to God, and which make up His manifestation, or, in the language of the Orient, the most brilliant and purest light. "In the beginning," say the sacred books of the Parsees, "Ormuzd, elevated above everything, was with the supreme wisdom, with the purity and in the light of the world. This luminous throne (‏מרכבה‎--Merkaba), this place inhabited by Ormuzd, is the one called the primitive light." (Zend Av., vol. III, p. 343.) Like the celestial man of the Kabbalists, he combines in him the true knowledge, the highest intelligence, the greatness, the goodness, the beauty, the energy or the strength, the purity or the splendor; it is he, finally, who had created, or formed at least, and who nourishes all beings. 40 These qualities in themselves and their resemblance to the Sefiroth can not, of course, lead us to any conclusion; but we can not help noticing that they are all united in Ormuzd, whose role, in relation to infinity and to unlimited time, is the same as that of the Adam Kadmon in relation to the Ayn Sof. Indeed, if we are to believe an already quoted historian, there existed among the Persians a very numerous sect in whose estimation Ormuzd was the divine will manifested in a highly resplendent human form. 41 It is also true that the Zend books say nothing of how Ormuzd brought forth the world, in what manner he himself and his enemy sprang from the bosom of the Eternal, and, finally, what constitutes the primitive substance of things. 42 But when God is compared to light, when the efficient cause of the world is subordinated to a higher principle, and the universe considered as the body of the invisible word, we must necessarily consider the beings as isolated words of that infinite light. We wish also to remark that the gnostic pantheism is more or less connected with the fundamental principle of the theology of the Parsees. 43


4. According to the Kabbalistic belief, as well as according to the Platonian system, all beings of the world existed at first in a more complete form in the invisible world. Each one of them has in the divine thought its invariable model, which can come to light here below only through the imperfection of matter. This conception, wherein the dogma of pre-existence is mingled with the principle of the theory of ideas, is found also in the Zend Avesta under the name of "Ferouer." The greatest orientist of our days explains this word as follows: "It is known that by "Ferouer" the Persians understood the divine type of each intelligently endowed thing, its idea in the thought of Ormuzd and the higher spirit that breathes in it and watches over it. This meaning is supported by the tradition as well as by the texts." 44

The interpretation of Auquetil-Duperron agrees perfectly with this one, 45 and we shall not cite all the passages of the Zend Avesta that confirm it. We would rather point out a very remarkable coincidence on one particular point of this doctrine between the Kabbalists and the disciples of Zoroaster. We still recall that magnificent passage in the Zohar where the souls, about to be sent to earth, represent to God how they will suffer while away from Him; what misery and contamination awaits them in our world. Well then, in the religious traditions of the Parsees the Ferouers make the same complaint, and Ormuzd answers them nearly as Jehovah answers those souls which are grieved over leaving heaven. He tells them that they were born for struggle, to combat evil and make it disappear from the creation, that they can only then enjoy immortality and heaven, when their task upon earth shall have been accomplished. 46 "Think what advantage you will have when, in the world, I shall permit you to stay in bodies. Fight and make the children of Ahriman disappear. In the end I shall rehabilitate you in your first estate and you will be happy. In the end I shall set you again in the world, and you will be immortal, ever young and faultless." (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 350). Another feature that reminds us of the Kabbalistic ideas, is that the nations have their ferouers just as the individuals, and thus the Zend Avesta often invokes the ferouer of Iran where the law of Zoroaster was recognized first. However, this belief, which we meet also in the prophecies of Daniel, (Ch. X, 10 ff.) was probably long since widely spread among the Chaldeans before their political and religious fusion with the Persians.


5. If the psychology of the Kabbalists has some resemblance with that of Plato, it has greater resemblance with that of the Parsecs, as represented in a collection of very old traditions which have been, for the most part, reproduced by Auquetil-Duperron in the "Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions." (Vol. 38, p. 646-648.) Let us first recall that according to the Kabbalistic theories there are in the human soul three powers, perfectly distinct one from another, which are united only during earthly life. On the highest level is the spirit proper (‏נשמה‎--N’shamah), the pure emanation of the Divine Intelligence, destined to return to its source, and unaffected by earthly contaminations; on the lowest level, immediately above matter, is the principle of motion and sensation, the vital spirit (‏נפש‎--Nefesh) whose task ends at the brink of the grave. Between these two extremes, finally, is the seat of good and of evil, the free and responsible principle, the moral person (‏רוח‎--Roo-ah). 47

We must add that several Kabbalists and some philosophers of great authority in Judaism have added to these three principal elements two others, one of which is the vital principle (‏הוח‎--He-hoh), the intermediary power between the soul and the body, apart from the principle of sensation; the other is the type, or, we may say, the idea which expresses the articular form of the individual (‏יחידה‎--Y’hidah, ‏צלם‎--Tselem, ‏דוגמא‎--Dougma).


This form descends from heaven into the womb of the woman at the time of conception and leaves thirty days before death. During this period (of thirty days) it is replaced by a shapeless shadow.

The theologic traditions of the Parsees set up precisely the same distinctions in the human soul. We easily. recognize the individual type in the ferouer which, having existed in heaven in a pure and isolated state, is compelled, as we have seen above, to unite with the body. In no less evident manner do we find again the vital principle in the Dian, whose part it is, as the author our guide says, to conserve the forces of the body and to maintain the harmony in all its parts. Like the "He-yah" of the Hebrews, it takes no part in the evil of which man is guilty; it is but a light vapor that comes from the heart, and which must mix with the earth after death. The Akko, on the contrary, is the highest principle. It is above evil, as the preceding principle is below it. It is a kind of light that comes from heaven, and which must return thither when our body is returned to the dust. It is the pure intelligence of Plato and of the Kabbalists, but restricted to the knowledge of our duties, to the prevision of future life and to resurrection, in short, to moral consciousness. We finally come to the soul proper or the moral person, which is one, notwithstanding the diversity of its faculties, and which alone is responsible to divine judgment for our actions 48 Another distinction, though much less philosophical but equally admitted by the Zend books, is the one which makes man the image of the world and which recognizes in his consciousness two opposite principles, two Kedras, one, coming from heaven, leads us to good, while the other, created by Ahriman, tempts us to do evil. 49 These two principles which, nevertheless, do not exclude liberty of action, play quite a prominent role in the Talmud where they become the good and the evil desire (‏יצר טוב‎--Yetzer Tov,‏יצר הרה‎--Yetzer Ha-rah); possibly also the good and the evil angel.


6. Even the conception of Ahriman, notwithstanding its purely mythological character, was preserved in the doctrines of the Kabbalah; for darkness and evil are personified in Samael, just as the divine light is represented in all its splendor by the heavenly man. As to the metaphysical interpretation of this symbol, namely that the evil principle is matter, or, as the Kabbalists say, the "shell," the last degree of existence, it is found, without straining the subject, in the sect of the Zerdustians who established between the divine light and the kingdom of darkness the same relation as between the body and its shadow. 50

But another fact, more worthy of our attention, because not to be found elsewhere, is that we find in the oldest parts of. the religious codes of the Parsees the Kabbalistic view that the prince of darkness, Sama-el, by losing half of his name, becomes at the end of days, an angel of light, and, together with all that was cursed, returns to divine grace. A passage in the Yacna reads: "This unjust, this impure, this gloomy king who knows but evil, will say Avesta at the resurrection, and, fulfilling the law, he will establish it even in the dwelling of the damned (the derwands). (Zend Av., vol. II, p. 169.) The Bundehesh adds that at the same time Ormuzd and the seven first genii on one side, and Ahriman with an equal number of evil spirits on the other side, will be seen together offering a sacrifice to the Eternal, Zervane Akerene. (Zend Av., vol. III, p. 415). We shall add, finally, to all these metaphysical and religious ideas a very peculiar geographical system which is found with some slight variations in the Zohar and in the sacred books of the Parsees. According to the Zend Avesta (Vol. II, p. 70) and the Bundehesh (Zend Av., vol. III, p. 363) the earth is divided into seven parts (keshvars), which are watered by just as many great rivers, and separated from one another by the "water spilled in the beginning." Each of these parts form a world in itself and supports inhabitants of different nature; some are black, some are white; these have their bodies covered with hair, like animals, the others differentiate themselves by some other more or less fantastic formation. Finally, only one of these great parts of the earth received the law of Zoroaster.


Let us now have the view of the Kabbalists on the same subject. In quoting it, we shall confine ourselves to the role of a translator only. "When God created the world, he stretched above us seven heavens, and formed beneath our feet as many lands. He made also seven rivers, and set up the week of seven days. Now, as each of these heavens has its separate constellation and angels of a particular nature, so also have the lands here below. Placed one above the other, they are all inhabited, but by beings of different nature, as it was said of the heavens. Among the beings, some have two faces, some four, and others but one. They differ just as well in their color; some are red, some black and some white. These have clothes, the others are naked like worms. If the objection be raised that all the inhabitants of the world descend from Adam, we ask if it is possible that Adam travelled in all these regions for the purpose of populating them with his children? How many wives did he have? But Adam lived only in that part of the earth which is the most elevated and which is enveloped by the higher heaven." 51 The only difference that separates this opinion from that of the Parsees is that instead of considering the seven parts of the earth as natural divisions of the same surface, they represent them as enveloped one in another, like the layers of an onion ‏אלין על אלין כנלדי בשלים‎, as the text says.


These are, in their full simplicity and without any systematical arrangement, the elements that constitute the common foundation of the Kabbalah and the religious ideas brought forth under the influence of the Zend Avesta. No matter how numerous and how important they may be, we would still retreat before the deduction that follows from this parallel if we had not found also in the sacred books of the Parsecs all the heavenly and infernal mythology, part of the liturgy and even some of the most essential dogmas of Judaism. Nevertheless, God forbid that we accuse the Kabbalists of having been but servile imitators, of having adopted strange ideas and beliefs without examination or, at least, without modification, and of having confined themselves to clothing them with the authority of the sacred books.

As a general rule there is no instance of a nation, no matter how strongly the influence of another nation may act upon it, giving up its true existence--the exercise of its inner faculties--and being content with a borrowed life, and if I may also say, with a borrowed soul. We can not possibly consider the Kabbalah as an isolated fact, as accidental in Judaism; on the contrary, it is its heart and life. 52 For, while the Talmud took possession of all that relates to the outward practice and the material execution of the Law, the Kabbalah reserved for itself exclusively the domain of speculation and the most formidable problems of the natural and revealed theology. It was able, besides, to arouse the veneration of the people by showing inviolate respect for their gross beliefs, and in giving them to understand that their entire faith and cult rested upon a sublime mystery. By carrying the principle of the allegorical method to its last consequences, the Kabbalah had no need of trickery to accomplish this.


We have also seen to what rank it has been raised by the Talmud, and what influence it exerted upon popular imagination. The sentiments it once instilled have remained to the days nearest to us; for it was by depending upon the Kabbalistic ideas that the modern Bar Kochba, Sabbathai Zebi, had disturbed for a while all the Jews of the world. 53 The ideas also caused the liveliest agitation among the Jews of Hungary and Poland towards the close of the eighteenth century by giving birth to the sect of the Zoharites and Neo-Hassidim, and by leading thousands of Israelites into the bosom of Christianity. When we now consider the Kabbalah, per se, we can not help seeing therein an immense advance upon the theology of the Zend Avesta. Here, indeed, dualism is the cornerstone of the structure, although not as absolute as commonly thought, and although born as a principle in a religion which acknowledges one Supreme Being. Ormuzd and Ahriman alone exist in reality, with a divine character and with real power; while the Eternal, that limitless time from which both of them sprang, is, as we said, a pure abstraction. With the desire to relieve Him (the Eternal) of the responsibility for evil, the management of the world was taken from Him, and consequently all participation in good; nothing but a name with a shadow of existence was left to Him. But this is not all. All ideas relating to the invisible world, all the great principles of the human mind in the Zend Avesta, and in the later traditions connected with it, are still wrapped in a mythological veil through which they appear as visible realities and as distinct persons made in the image of man.


The doctrine of the Kabbalists presents quite a different character. Here monotheism is the foundation, the basis and the principle of all; dualism and all other distinctions of whatever nature exist only formally. God alone, God, One and Supreme, is at once the cause, the substance and the intelligible essence, the ideal form of all that is. Only between Being and Not-being, between the highest form and the lowest degree of existence is there an opposition, a dualism. That one is light, this one is darkness. Darkness, therefore, is but a negation, and light, as we have shown several times, is the spiritual principle, the eternal wisdom, the infinite intelligence which creates all that it conceives, and conceives or thinks by its very existence. But if this be so, if it be true that at a certain height the being and the thought blend, then the great conceptions of the intelligence can not exist in mind alone, then they do not represent mere forms from which abstractions are made at will; on the contrary, they have a substantial and an absolute value, that is to say, they are inseparable from the eternal substance. This is precisely the character of the Sefiroth, of the Heavenly Man, of the Great and Small Face, in short, of all the Kabbalistic personifications which, as we see, differ greatly from the individual and mythological realizations of the Zend Avesta.


The frame, the outline of the Zend Avesta, still remained the same, but the background completely changed its nature, and the Kabbalah offers, by its very birth, the peculiar spectacle of a mythology passing into the state of metaphysics under the very influence of religious sentiment. However, the system which was the fruit of that movement, does not belong as yet, notwithstanding such volume and depth, among the works where human reason makes free use of its rights and powers. Mysticism, per se, does not show itself there in the most elevated form, for it still remains chained to an external power--the revealed word. No doubt that this power is more apparent than real; undoubtedly also that allegory soon made of the sacred letter a compliant sign which expresses whatever one wishes, a docile instrument at the service of the mind and its most liberal inspirations. But it can not be denied that such a procedure--whether due to deliberation or to sincere illusion--this art of shielding new ideas under some venerable text, is the sanctioning of fatal prejudice against true philosophy. Thus it is that the Kabbalah has a religious and a national character, although born under the influence of a strange civilization, and notwithstanding the pantheism that underlies all its doctrines.


By taking refuge, first under the authority of the Bible and then under the oral law, it retained all the appearances of a theological system, and especially of a Jewish theology. Before admitting it, therefore, into the history of philosophy and humanity, those appearances had to be wiped out and the Kabbalah had to be shown in its true light, that is to say as a natural product of the human mind. This course was accomplished, as we already said, slowly but surely, in the capital of the Ptolomeans. There, for the first time, the Hebrew traditions stepped over the threshold of the sanctuary, and mingling with many new ideas, but losing none of their own substance, they spread into the world. Desiring to recover a property which they considered their own, the guardians of these traditions welcomed ardently the most noble results of the Greek philosophy and mingled them more and more with their own beliefs. The pretended heirs to the Greek civilization, on the other hand, became gradually accustomed to this mingling, and thought only of bringing it into an organized system where Reason and Intuition, Philosophy and Theology would be equally represented. Thus it was that the Alexandrian school developed that brilliant and profound summary of all the philosophical and religious ideas of antiquity. Thus is explained the resemblance, yes, I dare say, the identity we have found in all the essential points or Neoplatonism and of the Kabbalah. But the Kabbalah having entered by this path the common ground of the human mind, was nevertheless transmitted among the Jews of Palestine in a small circle of the elite and was considered the secret of Israel. In this manner it was introduced into Europe, and in this manner it was taught until the publication of the Zohar. Here begins a new order of research, viz.: What influence did the Kabbalah exert upon the hermetic and mystic philosophy which attracted such attention from the beginning of the fifteenth to the end of the seventeenth century, of which Raymond Lullus may be considered the first, and Francis Mercurius van Helmont the last representative. This may be the subject of a second work that will be considered perhaps as a complement to the present work. We believe, though, we have attained the aim we have set with reference to the Kabbalistic system proper, and we have only to point out in a quick recapitulation the results which we believe we have attained.


1. The Kabbalah is not an imitation of the Platonic philosophy; for Plato was unknown in Palestine where the Kabbalistic system was founded. Furthermore, notwithstanding the several resembling traits which strike us at first glance, the two doctrines differ totally in the most important points.


2. The Kabbalah is not an imitation of the Alexandrian school. First, because it antedates the Alexandrian school, and secondly because Judaism has always shown a profound aversion to and an ignorance of Greek civilization even when it raised the Kabbalah to the rank of divine revelation.


3. The Kabbalah can not be regarded as the work of Philo, although the doctrines of the philosophical theologian contain a great number of Kabbalistic ideas. Philo could not transmit these ideas to his Palestinian compatriots without at the same time initiating them into the Greek philosophy. Because of the nature of his mind, Philo was not capable of founding a new doctrine. What is more, it is impossible to find in the monuments of Judaism the least trace of his influence. Finally, Philo's writings are of more recent date than the Kabbalistic principles, the application as well as the substance of which we find in the Septuagint, in the Proverbs of Ben Sirach and in the Book of Wisdom.


4. The Kabbalah has not been borrowed from Christianity, for all the great principles upon which it stands antedate the coming of Christ.


5. The striking resemblances which we have found between this doctrine and the religious beliefs of the several sects of Persia, the numerous and odd relations which it presents to us with the Zend Avesta, the traces that the religion of Zoroaster has left in all parts of Judaism, and the outward relations which existed between the Hebrews and their old teachers since the Babylonian captivity, force us to the conclusion that the materials of the Kabbalah were drawn from the theology of the ancient Persians. But we believe we have demonstrated at the same time that this loan did not destroy the originality of the Kabbalah; for the Kabbalah substituted the absolute unity of cause and substance for the dualism in God and in nature. Instead of explaining the formation of beings as an arbitrary act of two inimical forces, it presents them as divine forms, as successive and providential manifestations of the Infinite Intelligence. The ideas, finally, take in its bosom the place of realized personifications, and the mythology is supplanted by metaphysics. This seems to us to be the general law of the human mind. No absolute originality, but also no servile imitation from one nation and from one century to another. Whatever we may do to gain unlimited independence in the domain of moral science, the chain of tradition will always show itself in our boldest discoveries; and no matter how motionless we sometimes appear to be under the sway of tradition and authority, our intelligence paves the way, our ideas change with the very power that weighs them down, and a revolution is about to break loose.


The Kabbalah or, The Religious Philosophy of the Hebrews by Adolphe Franck 

What Is Magick?

What is magick? Forget all the fallacies and stereotypical pre-conceptions taught to you out of fear and ignorance and approach this question with an open mind. You will probably find it is not what you have been taught to think. Magick has been defined as "The art and science of causing change to occur in conformity with will *1" which could be put more simply as making desired change happen; or as "energy tending to change"; a definition I use is "magick is conscious evolution through directing energy". This does not really explain magick though, so I will try to elaborate on these phrases without jargon. An aim of magick is to train the mind by harnessing and making more consciously accessible such higher faculties as intuition, inspiration and the creative imagination, and by drawing on the power of the unconscious - to try and use more than the 10% of our brain's capacity that we do.


Magick assumes belief in, or rather experience of, subtle energies. We can only see about one seventieth of the light spectrum, yet what we cannot see still affects us - such as x-rays and ultraviolet light. Similarly, magick is about focusing more subtle, non-physical energies, and directing them to create change. To go about this requires experience, and training to improve the power of the mind, and specifically, the will. Acts such as meditation, breath control, voice work, body work, visualization, drama, ritual, and others, are all designed to improve our body and mind, to better sharpen us and balance us, and to enable us to perceive and wield more subtle energies. In the same way, an individual is as strong as their will, and the more balanced and integrated a person is, the stronger their will (note, this is probably one of the main reasons why so many magicians have experience of counselling and/or psychology, recognising the help these processes can give, both through training and experiencing them. This also acts as a removal of farcical social stigma often attached to these processes).


Practising magick tends to act as a deconditioning mechanism and can be a subtle process, the longer you practice, the more you change and the unnecessary inhibitions, stigmas, guilts and sin complexes that society builds in are removed. This has the effect of releasing their energy into the psyche, where it can strengthen the individual. The more physical side, such as yoga, bodywork, dance and massage, also removes the tension held in the body as body armour, and releases this and removes energy blockages which impair full efficiency and may result in illness. Possibly the major difference between magick and many of the religious paths to spiritual growth is that magick is more dynamic, and places the emphasis on you to work for change - there are no gurus in magick, rather there are fellow students with different perspectives and experiences - we learn from each other, as in other areas of life. Magick tends to work a lot with symbols, as these are the language of the unconscious, and this is an area of tremendous power to tap. Symbols have many functions, and one of these, released through magick, can be the ability to confound the ego and the censor mechanisms, and enabling us to perceive more subtle truths, or experience direct revelations. Although we may not be able to fully explain how symbols work, we know from experience that certain symbols seem harmonious with certain types of energy. For example a magician may tell you that if you want to attract love you should wear green, and rose perfume, perhaps wear copper, like a bracelet or necklace, etc. These are all things attributed with Venus, who is associated with love, and so the principal is one of contagion - sympathetic magick, or making something happen by working with items linked to it. This is one of the oldest and most commonly practised forms of magick. Working with the symbols of a type of energy does seem to attract that energy.


A cautionary word here, magick is often seen as a way to hidden powers, and entered for the wrong reason, the "I want sex, power and lots of money" syndrome. Now there is nothing wrong with these things in themselves, but when you do magick you will discover that you tend to get what you need rather than necessarily what you want. When you do magick you generally use techniques to alter your state of consciousness and raise energy, and then direct that energy to create a desired result. The channel that energy takes as directed by your altered state of consciousness is not necessarily the path you might expect in your normal everyday state. Magick does bring you power, yes, but it is power over yourself, not other people. It is the power that is important, to grow and to create positive change. This does not mean there is anything wrong with using magick to gain more physical things, there is nothing wrong with doing a ritual or spell to get a job, whereas trying to make a specific individual go to bed with you would be wrong. Magick is very much about intent, and if your intent is to get work, you are not imposing on people, whereas if you were trying to make somebody do something that they would not naturally do, you are imposing on their will. If you did a ritual to attract love without specifying a person, but opening yourself to the opportunity to meet someone where love may arise, and to feel more attractive and better about yourself, you are not imposing, you are trying to create positive change.


Magick is a commitment to yourself, and it requires determination, perseverance, strength, openness to change and absence of rigidity, a love of life (including yourself), and a desire to grow and fulfil your potential. It may be that you already have all these qualities and do this already without calling it magick - magick is not about labels, and those who think and talk as if it is unfortunately put some people off. Magick is learning about the natural flows of energy in the universe, and working in harmony with them to effect positive change, both in yourself and in your environment. Some people ask why magick is spelt with a 'k' on the end. This is to distinguish it from magic, associated in the popular mind with illusionism and prestidigitation, stage magic. Magick is not about illusion, it is about creating real change, and the 'k' signifies this. K is the eleventh letter of the alphabet, i.e. the one beyond ten. Symbolically this is very powerful, as we work in base ten, and eleven represents the unseen, or hidden energies - the subtle energies of magick, eleven is considered to be the number of magick. Magickal training and experience bring forth the energies of the unconscious, and so it is no surprise to see that symbols become more important as you develop, providing not only the language of dream and the unconscious, but also helping create a more flexible perception grid of the universe. To grow spiritually, it is vital that you remain flexible and do not become dogmatic, rather that you are open to experience and willing to question your ideas and beliefs as a result of those experiences. Magick can be a painful process. It is not easy to maintain the discipline and honest self-critical approach all the time. It can also be hard work dealing with the energy released without being knocked off balance sometimes. The important thing in these cases is to remain honest and keep at it. Nobody said magick was easy! It takes a lot of practice and hard work and pain, but the rewards are spiritual and mental growth, the joy of life and the beauty of unconditional love. Beyond the limits there are no limits!


-end-


David Rankine

SYMBOLISM AND IDEOGRAPHS

"A symbol is ever, to him who has eyes for it, some dimmer or clearer revelation of the God-like. Through all there glimmers something of a divine idea; nay, the highest ensign that men ever met and embraced under the cross itself, had no meaning, save an accidental extrinsic one." CARLYLE.

THE study of the hidden meaning in every religious and profane legend, of whatsoever nation, large or small -- pre-eminently the traditions of the East -- has occupied the greater portion of the present writer's life. She is one of those who feel convinced that no mythological story, no traditional event in the folk-lore of a people has ever been, at any time, pure fiction, but that every one of such narratives has an actual, historical lining to it. In this the writer disagrees with those symbologists, however great their reputation, who find in every myth nothing save additional proofs of the superstitious bent of mind of the ancients, and believe that all mythologies sprung from and are built upon solar myths. Such superficial thinkers were admirably disposed of by Mr. Gerald Massey, the poet and Egyptologist, in a lecture on "Luniolatry, Ancient and Modern." His pointed criticism is worthy of reproduction in this part of this work, as it echoes so well our own feelings, expressed openly so far back as 1875, when "Isis Unveiled" was written.


"For thirty years past Professor Max Muller has been teaching in his books and lectures, in the Times and various magazines, from the platform of the Royal Institution, the pulpit of Westminster Abbey, and his chair at Oxford, that mythology is a disease of language, and that the ancient symbolism was a result of something like a primitive aberration."'We know,' says Renouf, echoing Max Muller, in his Hibbert lectures, 'we know that mythology is the disease which springs up at a peculiar stage of human culture.' Such is the shallow explanation of the non-evolutionists, and such explanations are still accepted by the British public, that gets its thinking done by proxy. Professor Max Muller, Cox, Gubernatis, and other propounders of the Solar Mythos, have portrayed the primitive myth-maker for us as a sort of Germanised-Hindu metaphysician, projecting his own shadow on a mental mist, and talking ingeniously concerning smoke, or, at least, cloud; the sky overhead becoming like the dome of dreamland, scribbled over with the imagery of aboriginal nightmares! They conceive the early man in their own likeness, and look upon him as perversely prone to self-mystification, or, as Fontenelle has it, 'subject to beholding things that are not there.' They have misrepresented primitive or archaic man as having been idiotically misled from the first by an active but untutored imagination into believing all sorts of fallacies, which were directly and constantly contradicted by his own daily experience; a fool of fancy in the midst of those grim realities that were grinding his experience into him, like the grinding icebergs making their imprints upon the rocks submerged beneath the sea. It remains to be said, and will one day be acknowledged, that these accepted teachers have been no nearer to the beginnings of mythology and language than Burns' poet Willie had been near to Pegasus. My reply is, 'Tis but a dream of the metaphysical theorist that mythology was a disease of language, or of anything else except his own brain. The origin and meaning of mythology have been missed altogether by these solarites and weather-mongers! Mythology was a primitive mode of thinking the early thought. It was founded on natural facts, and is still verifiable in phenomena. There is nothing insane, nothing irrational in it, when considered in the light of evolution, and when its mode of expression by sign-language is thoroughly understood. The insanity lies in mistaking it for human history or Divine Revelation.*


Mythology is the repository of man's most ancient science, and what concerns us chiefly is this -- when truly interpreted once more, it is destined to be the death of those false theologies to which it has unwittingly given birth.** In modern phraseology a statement is sometimes said to be mythical in proportion to its being untrue; but the ancient mythology was not a system or mode of falsifying in that sense. Its fables were the means of conveying facts; they were neither forgeries nor fictions. . . . For example, when the Egyptians portrayed the moon as a Cat, they were not ignorant enough to suppose that the moon was a cat; nor did their wandering fancies see any likeness in the moon to a cat; nor was a cat-myth any mere expansion of verbal metaphor; nor had they any intention of making puzzles or riddles. . . . They had observed the simple fact that the cat saw in the dark, and that her eyes became full-orbed, and grew most luminous by night. The moon was the seer by night in heaven, and the cat was its equivalent on the earth; and so the familiar cat was adopted as a representative, a natural sign, a living pictograph of the lunar orb. . . . And so it followed that the sun which saw down in the under-world at night could also be called the cat, as it was, because it also saw in the dark. The name of the cat in Egyptian is mau, which denotes the seer, from mau, to see. One writer on mythology asserts that the Egyptians 'imagined a great cat behind the sun, which is the pupil of the cat's eye.' But this imagining is all modern. It is the Mullerite stock in trade. The moon as cat was the eye of the sun, because it reflected the solar light, and because the eye gives back image in its mirror. In the form of the goddess Pasht, the cat keeps watch for the sun, with her paw holding down and bruising the head of the serpent of darkness, called his eternal enemy. . . ."


This is a very correct exposition of the lunar-mythos from its astronomical aspect. Selenography, however, is the least esoteric of the divisions of lunar Symbology. To master thoroughly -- if one is permitted to coin a new word -- Selenognosis, one must become proficient in more than its astronomical meaning. The moon (vide § VII. Deus Lunus) is intimately related to the Earth, as shown in Stanza VI. of Book I., and is more directly concerned with all the mysteries of our globe than is even Venus-Lucifer, the occult sister and alter-ego of the Earth.

The untiring researches of Western, and especially German, symbologists, during the last and the present centuries, have brought every Occultist and most unprejudiced persons to see that without the help of symbology (with its seven departments, of which the moderns know nothing) no ancient Scripture can ever be correctly understood. Symbology must be studied from every one of its aspects, for each nation had its own peculiar methods of expression. In short, no Egyptian papyrus, no Indian tolla, no Assyrian tile, or Hebrew scroll, should be read and accepted literally.

This every scholar now knows. The able lectures of Mr. G. Massey alone are sufficient in themselves to convince any fair-minded Christian that to accept the dead-letter of the Bible is equivalent to falling into a grosser error and superstition than any hitherto evolved by the brain of the savage South Sea Islander. But the point to which even the most truth-loving and truth-searching Orientalists -- whether Aryanists or Egyptologists -- seem to remain blind, is the fact that every symbol in papyrus or olla is a many-faced diamond, each of whose facets not merely bears several interpretations, but relates likewise to several sciences. This is instanced in the just quoted interpretation of the moon symbolized by the cat -- an example of sidero-terrestrial imagery; the moon bearing many other meanings besides this with other nations.


As a learned Mason and Theosophist, the late Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, has shown in his Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia, there is a great difference between emblem and symbol. The former "comprises a larger series of thoughts than a symbol, which may be said rather to illustrate some single special idea." Hence, the symbols (say lunar, or solar) of several countries, each illustrating such a special idea, or series of ideas, form collectively an esoteric emblem. The latter is "a concrete visible picture or sign representing principles, or a series of principles, recognizable by those who have received certain instructions" (initiates). To put it still plainer, an emblem is usually a series of graphic pictures viewed and explained allegorically, and unfolding an idea in panoramic views, one after the other. Thus the Puranas are written emblems. So are the Mosaic and Christian Testaments, or the Bible, and all other exoteric Scriptures. As the same authority shows: -


"All esoteric Societies have made use of emblems and symbols, such as the Pythagorean Society, the Eleusinian, the Hermetic Brethren of Egypt, the Rosicrucians, and the Freemasons. Many of these emblems it is not proper to divulge to the general eye, and a very minute difference may make the emblem or symbol differ widely in its meaning. The magical sigillae, being founded on certain principles of numbers, partake of this character, and although monstrous or ridiculous in the eyes of the uninstructed, convey a whole body of doctrine to those who have been trained to recognise them."


The above enumerated societies are all comparatively modern, none dating back earlier than the middle ages. How much more proper, then, that the students of the oldest Archaic School should be careful not to divulge secrets of far more importance to humanity (in the sense of being dangerous in the hands of the latter) than any of the so-called "Masonic Secrets," which have now become, as the French say, those of "Polichinelle!" But this restriction can apply only to the psychological or rather psycho-physiological and Cosmical significance of symbol and emblem, and even to that only partially. An adept must refuse to impart the conditions and means that lead to a correlation of elements, whether psychic or physical, that may produce a hurtful result as well as a beneficent one. But he is ever ready to impart to the earnest student the secret of the ancient thought in anything that regards history concealed under mythological symbolism, and thus to furnish a few more land-marks towards a retrospective view of the past, as containing useful information with regard to the origin of man, the evolution of the races and geognosy; yet it is the crying complaint of to-day, not only among theosophists, but also among the few profane interested in the subject. "Why do not the adepts reveal that which they know?" To this, one might answer, "Why should they, since one knows beforehand that no man of science will accept, even as an hypothesis, let alone as a theory or axiom, the facts imparted. Have you so much as accepted or believed in the A B C of the Occult philosophy contained in the Theosophist, "Esoteric Buddhism," and other works and periodicals? Has not even the little which was given, been ridiculed and derided, and made to face the "animal" and "ape theory" of Huxley -- Haeckel, on one hand, and the rib of Adam and the apple on the other? Notwithstanding such an unenviable prospect, a mass of facts is given in the present work. And now the origin of man, the evolution of the globe and the races, human and animal, are as fully treated here as the writer is able to treat them.


The proofs brought forward in corroboration of the old teachings are scattered widely throughout the old scriptures of ancient civilizations. The Puranas, the Zendavesta, and the old classics are full of them; but no one has ever gone to the trouble of collecting and collating together those facts. The reason for this is, that all such events were recorded symbolically; and that the best scholars, the most acute minds, among our Aryanists and Egyptologists, have been too often darkened by one or another preconception; still oftener, by one-sided views of the secret meaning. Yet even a parable is a spoken symbol: a fiction or a fable, as some think; an allegorical representation, we say, of life-realities, events, and facts. And, as a moral was ever drawn from a parable, that moral being an actual truth and fact in human life, so an historical, real event was deduced -- by those versed in the hieratic sciences -- from certain emblems and symbols recorded in the ancient archives of the temples. The religious and esoteric history of every nation was embedded in symbols; it was never expressed in so many words. All the thoughts and emotions, all the learning and knowledge, revealed and acquired, of the early races, found their pictorial expression in allegory and parable. Why? Because the spoken word has a potency unknown to, unsuspected and disbelieved in, by the modern "sages." Because sound and rhythm are closely related to the four Elements of the Ancients; and because such or another vibration in the air is sure to awaken corresponding powers, union with which produces good or bad results, as the case may be. No student was ever allowed to recite historical, religious, or any real events in so many unmistakable words, lest the powers connected with the event should be once more attracted. Such events were narrated only during the Initiation, and every student had to record them in corresponding symbols, drawn out of his own mind and examined later by his master, before they were finally accepted. Thus was created in time the Chinese Alphabet, as, before that, the hieratic symbols were fixed upon in old Egypt. In the Chinese language, the alphabet of which may be read in any language,* and which is only a little less ancient than the Egyptian alphabet of Thoth, every word has its corresponding symbol conveying the word needed in a pictorial form. The language possesses many thousands of such symbol letters, or logograms, each meaning a whole word; for letters proper, or an alphabet, do not exist in the Chinese language any more than they did in the Egyptian till a far later period.


The explanation of the chief symbols and emblems is now attempted, as Book II., which treats of Anthropogenesis, would be most difficult to understand without a preparatory acquaintance with the metaphysical symbols at least.

Nor would it be just to enter upon an esoteric reading of symbolism without giving due honour to one who has rendered it the greatest service in this century, by discovering the chief key to ancient Hebrew symbology, interwoven strongly with metrology, one of the keys to the once universal mystery language. Mr. Ralston Skinner, of Cincinnati, the author of "The Hebrew-Egyptian Mystery and the Source of Measures" has our thanks. A mystic and a Kabalist by nature, he has laboured for many years in this direction, and his efforts were certainly crowned with great success. In his own words: --


"The writer is quite certain that there was an ancient language which modernly and up to this time appears to have been lost, the vestiges of which, however, abundantly exist. . . . The author discovered that this (integral ratio in numbers of diameter to circumference of a circle) geometrical ratio was the very ancient, and probably the divine origin of linear measures. . . . It appears almost proven that the same system of geometry, numbers, ratio, and measures were known and made use of on the continent of North America, even prior to the knowledge of the same by the descending Semites. . . . ."


"The peculiarity of this language was that it could be contained in another, concealed and not to be perceived, save through the help of special instruction; letters and syllabic signs possessing at the same time the powers or meaning of numbers, of geometrical shapes, pictures, or ideographs and symbols, the designed scope of which would be determinatively helped out by parables in the shape of narratives or parts of narratives; while also it could be set forth separately, independently, and variously, by pictures, in stone work, or in earth construction."


"To clear up an ambiguity as to the term language: Primarily the word means the expression of ideas by human speech; but, secondarily, it may mean the expression of ideas by any other instrumentality. This old language is so composed in the Hebrew text, that by the use of the written characters, which will be the language first defined, a distinctly separated series of ideas may be intentionally communicated, other than those ideas expressed by the reading of the sound signs. This secondary language sets forth, under a veil, series of ideas, copies in imagination of things sensible, which may be pictured, and of things which may be classed as real without being sensible; as, for instance, the number 9 may be taken as a reality, though it has no sensible existence, so also a revolution of the moon, as separate from the moon itself by which that revolution has been made, may be taken as giving rise to, or causing a real idea, though such a revolution has no substance. This idea-language may consist of symbols restricted to arbitrary terms and signs, having a very limited range of conceptions, and quite valueless, or it may be a reading of nature in some of her manifestations of a value almost immeasurable, as regards human civilization. A picture of something natural may give rise to ideas of co-ordinative subject-matter, radiating out in various and even opposing directions, like the spokes of a wheel, and producing natural realities in departments very foreign to the apparent tendency of the reading of the first or starting picture. Notion may give rise to connected notion, but if it does, then, however apparently incongruous, all resulting ideas must spring from the original picture and be harmonically connected, or related. . . . Thus with a pictured idea radical enough, the imagination of the Cosmos itself even in its details of construction might result. Such a use of ordinary language is now obsolete, but it has become a question with the writer whether at one time, far back in the past, it, or such, was not the language of the world and of universal use, possessed, however, as it became more and more moulded into its arcane forms, by a select class or caste. By this I mean that the popular tongue or vernacular commenced even in its origin to be made use of as the vehicle of this peculiar mode of conveying ideas. Of this the evidences are very strong; and, indeed, it would seem that in the history of the human race there happened, from causes which at present, at any rate, we cannot trace, a lapse or loss from an original perfect language and a perfect system of science -- shall we say perfect because they were of divine origin and importation?"


"Divine origin" does not mean here a revelation from an anthropomorphic god on a mount amidst thunder and lightning; but, as we understand it, a language and a system of science imparted to the early mankind by a more advanced mankind, so much higher as to be divine in the sight of that infant humanity. By a "mankind," in short, from other spheres; an idea which contains nothing supernatural in it, but the acceptance or rejection of which depends upon the degree of conceit and arrogance in the mind of him to whom it is stated. For, if the professors of modern knowledge would only confess that, though they know nothing of the future of the disembodied man -- or rather will accept nothing -- yet this future may be pregnant with surprises and unexpected revelations to them, once their Egos are rid of their gross bodies -- then materialistic unbelief would have fewer chances than it has. Who of them knows, or can tell, what may happen when once the life cycle of this globe is run down and our mother earth herself falls into her last sleep? Who is bold enough to say that the divine Egos of our mankind -- at least the elect out of the multitudes passing on to other spheres -- will not become in their turn the "divine" instructors of a new mankind generated by them on a new globe, called to life and activity by the disembodied "principles" of our Earth? (See Stanza VI., Book I., Part 1.) All this may have been the experience of the PAST, and these strange records lie embedded in the "Mystery language" of the prehistoric ages, the language now called SYMBOLISM.



The Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky -- Vol. 1



THE LEGEND OF RA AND ISIS

THE original text of this very interesting legend is written in the hieratic character on a papyrus preserved at Turin, and was published by Pleyte and Rossi in their Corpus of Turin Papyri. 1 French and German translations of it were published by Lefébure, 2 and Wiedemann 3 respectively, and summaries of its contents were given by Erman 4 and Maspero. 5 A transcript of the hieratic text into hieroglyphics, with transliteration and translation, was published by me in 1895. 6

It has already been seen that the god Ra, when retiring from the government of this world, took steps through Thoth to supply mankind with words of power and spells with which to protect themselves against the bites of serpents and other noxious reptiles. The legend of the Destruction of Mankind affords no explanation of this remarkable fact, but when we read the following legend of Ra and Isis we understand why Ra, though king of the gods, was afraid of the reptiles which lived in the kingdom of Keb. The legend, or "Chapter of the Divine God," begins by enumerating the mighty attributes of Ra as the creator of the universe, and describes the god of "many names" as unknowable, even by the gods.


At this time Isis lived in the form of a woman who possessed the knowledge of spells and incantations, that is to say, she was regarded much in the same way as modern African peoples regard their "medicine-women," or "witch-women." She had used her spells on men, and was tired of exercising her powers on them, and she craved the opportunity of making herself mistress of gods and spirits as well as of men. She meditated how she could make herself mistress both of heaven and earth, and finally she decided that she could only obtain the power she wanted if she possessed the knowledge of the secret name of Ra, in which his very existence was bound up. Ra guarded this name most jealously, for he knew that if he revealed it to any being he would henceforth be at that being's mercy. Isis saw that it was impossible to make Ra declare his name to her by ordinary methods, and she therefore thought out the following plan. It was well known in Egypt and the Sudan at a very early period that if a magician obtained some portion of a person's body, e.g., a hair, a paring of a nail, a fragment of skin, or a portion of some efflux from the body, spells could be used upon them which would have the effect of causing grievous harm to that person. Isis noted that Ra had become old and feeble, and that as he went about he dribbled at the mouth, and that his saliva fell upon the ground. Watching her opportunity she caught some of the saliva of the and mixing it with dust, she moulded it into the form of a large serpent, with poison-fangs, and having uttered her spells over it, she left the serpent lying on the path, by which Ra travelled day by day as he went about inspecting Egypt, so that it might strike at him as he passed along.


We may note in passing that the Banyoro in the Sudan employ serpents in killing buffaloes at the present day. They catch a puff-adder in a noose, and then nail it alive by the tip of its tail to the round in the middle of a buffalo track, so that when an animal passes the reptile may strike at it. Presently a buffalo comes along, does what it is expected to do, and then the puff-adder strikes at it, injects its poison, and the animal dies soon after. As many as ten buffaloes have been killed in a day by one puff-adder. The body of the first buffalo is not eaten, for it is regarded as poisoned meat, but all the others are used as food. 1

Soon after Isis had placed the serpent on the Path, Ra passed by, and the reptile bit him, thus injecting poison into his body. Its effect was terrible, and Ra cried out in agony. His jaws chattered, his lips trembled, and he became speechless for a time; never before had be suffered such pain. The gods hearing his cry rushed to him, and when he could speak he told them that he had been bitten by a deadly serpent. In spite of all the words of power which were known to him, and his secret name which had been hidden in his body at his birth, a serpent had bitten him, and he was being consumed with a fiery pain. 


He then commanded that all the gods who had any knowledge of magical spells should come to him, and when they came, Isis, the great lady of spells, the destroyer of diseases, and the revivifier of the dead, came with them. Turning to Ra she said, "What hath happened, O divine Father?" and in answer the god told her that a serpent had bitten him, that he was hotter than fire and colder than water, that his limbs quaked, and that he was losing the power of sight. Then Isis said to him with guile, "Divine Father, tell me thy name, for he who uttereth his own name shall live." Thereupon Ra proceeded to enumerate the various things that he had done, and to describe his creative acts, and ended his speech to Isis by saying, that he was Khepera in the morning, Ra at noon, and Temu in the evening. Apparently he thought that the naming of these three great names would satisfy Isis, and that she would immediately pronounce a word of power and stop the pain in his body, which, during his speech, had become more acute. Isis, however, was not deceived, and she knew well that Ra had not declared to her his hidden name; this she told him, and she begged him once again to tell her his name. For a time the god refused to utter the name, but as the pain in his body became more violent, and the poison passed through his veins like fire, he said, "Isis shall search in me, and my name shall pass from my body into hers."


At that moment Ra removed himself from the sight of the gods in his Boat, and the Throne in the Boat of Millions of Years had no occupant. The great name of Ra was, it seems, hidden in his heart, and. Isis, having some doubt as to whether Ra would keep his word or not, agreed with Horus that Ra must be made to take an oath to part with his two Eyes, that is, the Sun and the Moon. At length Ra allowed his heart to be taken from his body, and his great and secret name, whereby he lived, passed into the possession of Isis. Ra thus became to all intents and purposes a dead god. Then Isis, strong in the power of her spells, said: "Flow, poison, come out of Ra. Eye of Horus, come out of Ra, and shine outside his mouth. It is I, Isis, who work, and I have made the poison to fall on the ground. Verily the name of the great god is taken from him, Ra shall live and the poison shall die; if the poison live Ra shall die."


This was the infallible spell which was to be used in cases of poisoning, for it rendered the bite or sting of every venomous reptile harmless. It drove the poison out of Ra, and since it was composed by Isis after she obtained the knowledge of his secret name it was irresistible. If the words were written on papyrus or linen over a figure of Temu or Heru-hekenu, or Isis, or Horus, they became a mighty charm. If the papyrus or linen were steeped in water and the water drunk, the words were equally efficacious as a charm against snake-bites. To this day water in which the written words of a text from the Kur'an have been dissolved, or water drunk from a bowl on the inside of which religious texts have been written, is still regarded as a never-failing charm in Egypt and the Sudan. Thus we see that the modern custom of drinking magical water was derived from the ancient Egyptians, who believed that it conveyed into their bodies the actual power of their gods.



Legends of the Gods The Egyptian Texts, edited with Translations by E. A. Wallis Budge

FREE WILL

In a universe governed by unalterable and immutable laws have men free will and, if so, how much? Or are the Mohammedans correct in their belief that a man's fate is bound around his neck at birth?


It is true that all which happens to man is in accordance with law, as there is no such thing as chance or accident; every event is adamantly linked to a preceding cause and to a subsequent effect. But that man is devoid of volition and a puppet in the hands of a higher power is contrary to logic and contradictory to Divine Nature. It is debasing the Deity to think that we are enmeshed in the web of life, futilely trying to extricate ourselves like flies entangled in a spider's weaving. This implies that our efforts for progression and advancement are amusing to the Ruler of the Universe. Such a concept makes God a lower creature than man; for no earthly father would hold his children in bondage when he had the power to free them.

Then, since we have free will, what is the extent of its scope? Is it relative or absolute? The freedom of the will is real, although it is also relative and conditioned. Man is surrounded by necessity, but is free to choose. In other words, man is both bound and free.


Man is bound or conditioned by inheritance, environmental limitations, physical constitution, habits, prejudices, ignorance and transgression of natural and spiritual laws. He has also inherited a brain having a certain anatomical structure, and physiological aptitude and quality. In childhood and youth he had an environment not of his choosing, the influence of parents, home and school surroundings and education, when his nervous system was most impressionable.

His nervous organization and personality have been built by what he has inherited and what he has acquired from environment. It is with this behind him that, when he arrives at maturity, he has to use his brain in shaping his further course of action. Choice and free will he has, but with the instrument he has inherited and modified by early years. For this reason, environment, training and education are so important. But the power to do must not be confounded with the power to will. One is limited, the other is unlimited.

Men are conditioned by all of the aforementioned, but principally by their karma, or the Law of Cause and Effect. The operation of this law creates destiny, and destiny is fixed. It is not uncommon for people to find themselves in distasteful situations and painful predicaments from which they are utterly unable to free themselves. They rail and wail against their luck or fate. But neither mythical luck nor fickle fate is responsible for their plight, for they have forged the chains now binding them. True, it may have been done in ignorance; but ignorance of the law excuses no one, whether on the physical, moral, mental or spiritual planes.


But, as we created our destiny, we can change it, and we have within ourselves all the necessary power to change our life and environment into one of our liking. But the change must come from within and not without. Instead of attempting to change our environment we should change ourselves, and the environment will automatically respond.

Moreover, there are certain fixed principles in life which men must obey; for these will ruthlessly discipline or destroy those who attempt to pit their will and strength against them. No man can, for example, violate the eternal verities of honesty, decency, love and brotherhood without paying the penalty.

This applies likewise to all natural laws. No amount of supplication, prayer or agony will change these laws one iota. Stick your hand into the fire and shout to the Almighty till your voice is gone, but your hand will continue to burn. So with all natural laws. You violate these laws by starting certain causes; the effects will follow as surely and inevitably as the pain follows the burn on the hand.

Karma is both immediate and remote. Many causes now obscure, were initiated prior to earth life and are exhausted here. Similarly, we are daily establishing other causes whose effects may not be

apparent until we have "passed over." Hence, the great importance of starting only those causes whose effects will be beneficial. For this is certain: whatever has been set in motion and whatever has been commenced must be finished. There is no cessation, suspension or modification of this law. By every thought, desire, wish and act we are creating future karma or destiny, either good or bad, from which we cannot escape.


What is the will? Is it a primary or secondary urge? Will is the self in action. Wherever there is true volition, there the ego is expressing itself. The strong-willed person has achieved a sufficiently stable character that determines the issues of each conflict. His desires are classified and subordinated to purposes and ends upon which he has previously determined. The weak-willed individual is the slave of his desires and appetites and tries to satisfy them all, no matter how destructive and disastrous they may be.

Though apparently we are all born with a fixed capacity of intelligence, which cannot be increased, it can, however, be trained or left untrained. But we need be under no such fatalistic predetermination of character. That is the product of training, and, later, of personal choice. Anybody except the outright imbecile or idiot, too stupid to profit by example, can be developed into a decent, normal, useful person. If he becomes a criminal instead, it is not because he was born so, but because he chose to be. Otherwise, why subject him to punishment?


All systems of punishments are based on responsibility and accountability which, in turn, rest on the relative freedom of the will. All men realize that a plea of no free will would be a feeble defense in a court of justice, and a much weaker one before their conscience. Furthermore, men never deny responsibility in connection with their good deeds; only when their choice has been unwise or unethical do they attempt to disclaim accountability. He who from such derangement of his intellect is incapable of distinguishing right from wrong should be committed to an institution where his actions are governed by another.

Even children can tell right from wrong and know they have the ability to choose their course of conduct. When little Willie breaks the neighbor's window or pilfers from his mother's purse, his parents do not excuse him on the ground that he has no free will; but instead, impress upon his mentality, or anatomy, that the consequences of such actions are painful. Later, Nature teaches him that retribution is inevitable and a fundamental rule of life, and that transgression brings with it an absolutely set payment as basic as a burned hand when exposed to the fire.


"I do not believe in free will," you say. Well, the very fact that you are at liberty to believe it or reject it proves you have choice. Otherwise, there would be no alternative. So long as man has the power to think he has the power to choose.


Life is a succession of choices, and, when we do not like the consequences of our choices, blaming the Deity is foolish and futile. Instead of wasting time in useless regret and vain excuses, we should determine to be more careful NOW. If we have chosen unwisely in the past, we can today, through the exercise of our free will, put into operation causes whose effects will be beneficial in the future.

Others contend free will is an impossibility in a universe of immutable and changeless laws. It is only because of unvarying law that man can have free will at all. In a world of chance and accident, devoid of plan and purpose, man could not have an atom of choice. Because certain causes always produce certain effects is man able to predict with any degree of surety what the outcome of his actions will be.

There is, of course, a central purpose, a general plan, to existence, and we have to follow this whether we want to or not. Anyone who has lived for any length of time can see that. For human affairs are subject, like the rest of the universe, to general laws and, in a large view of men's activities, free will can be left out of account and necessity takes its place. Kant says "that the force of circumstances is too strong for free will, and that the laws may be traced in the conduct of a mass of human beings, which are invisible in the individual." The Creator of the universe has a plan and purpose to which all created things are subject.


Some assume that, because God is omniscient and knows what men will do, there is no possibility of free will. God's omniscience does not preclude men's exercise of choice any more than children are deprived of freedom because their parents usually know quite well how they will react under different circumstances.

And this is certain, if only God's will prevailed on earth, it would be a paradise. But, simultaneously with men's exercise of their will began the existence of evil. For evil is not a person, but a force created for good, but which can be used for malevolent purposes. Man's perverted use of this force has brought into the world suffering, sorrow, misery, disease, war, pestilence and all manner of ungodly conditions. And these creations of man's volition will exist as long as he persists in blindly pursuing his erring way.

No perspicacity is required to realize that absolute free will without absolute wisdom would be an unmitigated curse; the worst conceivable calamity which God could impose upon man. When we consider what man in his ignorance has done with limited will and power, just the thought of what would happen had he absolute free will fills one with apprehension and terror. But God is merciful and, in His infinite love and wisdom, limits and controls man's freedom of action.

As men grow in spiritual stature, they gradually see the folly of independent action and submit to Divine guidance. And, in relinquishing their will,they are directed by the influence of that Higher Wisdom and moulded and guided into the path of true happiness.


"Where does free will function in times of war, when men are compelled to fight?" is a question on the lips of many today. Free will is never entirely abrogated, for there is always an alternative. True, the alternative is usually worse than the duty or responsibility one is trying to evade. Nevertheless, it is there. It often takes more courage to face public opinion than it does to face artillery.

Furthermore, man as a member of a large human family accumulates collective karma which is often discharged collectively, as in war or some other national contingency. He also derives numerous benefits and privileges from his country and, in turn, incurs duties and responsibilities and, in time of war, the welfare of the country supersedes the welfare of the individual. This truth is tersely and beautifully explained in the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, where Arjuna, who does not want to slay his kinsmen and friends, asks Krishna which is the right course to pursue—to fight or not to fight. Krishna replies: "This Real man that inhabiteth the body, O Arjuna, is invulnerable to harm, hurt, or death—therefore, why shouldst thou trouble thyself further about the matter? Instead face thy Duty in the matter, manfully and resolutely. . .. He who, in his ignorance thinketh: 'I slay,' or 'I am slain,' babbleth like an infant lacking knowledge. Of a truth, none can slay—none can be slain."


The soul is perfect in its pure essence. It is from its union with matter alone that all the imperfections, error and evil arise; but these do not affect its inner germ essence, for they are not its cause, which is the Absolute and Supreme Intelligence, which is God. The soul is responsible for its desires and for its choice of actions, and for this reason God established causes and effects. The soul, being immortal, came from God and must return to that Great Soul from which it issued. But as it was given to man pure and undefiled, free from all stain and error, it cannot ascend to that Celestial Abode until it shall have been refined and purified from all the evil it has wrought and all the errors and faults committed through its union with matter.

In the future life we will be able to perceive and trace the ineffaceable consequences of our idle words and evil deeds, and our remorse and grief must necessarily last as long as the consequences themselves. When we return to our Father's home, we will have to give an account of our wanderings and render a report of the stewardship which was entrusted to us. We are rational beings endowed with free will and, therefore, are held accountable both here and hereafter.


How strangely entangled are the threads of Destiny from the Distaff of Life! 


Life and Its Mysteries, by Frank L. Hammer

CANDLE MAGIC

1 One of the simplest of magical arts which comes under the heading of natural magic is candle burning. It is simple because it employs little ritual and few ceremonial artifacts. The theatrical props of candle magic can be purchased at any department store and its rituals can be practiced in any sitting room or bedroom.


2 Most of us have performed our first act of candle magic by the time we are two years old. Blowing out the tiny candles on our first birthday cake and making a wish is pure magic. This childhood custom is based on the three magical principals of concentration, will power and visualization. In simple terms, the child who wants his wish to come true has to concentrate (blow out the candles), visualize the end result (make a wish) and hope that it will come true( will power).


3 The size and shape of the candles you use is unimportant, although highly decorative, extra large, or unusually shaped candles will not be suitable as these may create distractions when the magician wants to concentrate on the important work in hand. Most magicians prefer to use candles of standard or uniform size if possible. Those which are sold in different colors for domestic use are ideal.


4 The candles you use for any type of magical use should be virgin, that is unused. Under no circumstances use a candle which has already adorned a dinner table or been used as a bedroom candle or night-light. There is a very good occult reason for not using anything but virgin materials in magic. Vibrations picked up by secondhand materials or equipment may disturb your workings and negate their effectiveness.


5 Some magicians who are artistically inclined prefer to make their own candles for ritual and magical use. This is a very practical exercise because not only does it impregnate the candle with your own personal vibrations, but the mere act of making your own candle is magically potent. Specialist shops sell candle wax and molds together with wicks, perfumes, and other equipment.


6 The hot wax is heated until liquid and then poured into the mould through which a suitably sized wick has already been threaded. The wax is then left to cool and once is this has occurred the mould is removed , leaving a perfectly formed candle. Special oil-soluble dyes and perfumes can be added to the wax before the cooling process is complete to provide suitable colors and scents for a particular magical ritual. Craft shops which sell candlemaking supplies can also provide do-it-yourself books explaining the technicalities of the art to the beginner.


7 Once you have purchased or made your ritual candle it has to be oiled or 'dressed' before burning. The purpose of dressing the candle is to establish a psychic link between it and the magician through a primal sensory experience. By physically touching the candle during the dressing procedure, you are charging it with our own personal vibrations and also concentrating the desire of your magical act into the wax. The candle is becoming an extension of the magician's mental power and life energy.


8 When you dress a candle for magical use, imagine that it is a psychic magnet with a North and a South pole. Rub the oil into the candle beginning at the top or North end and work downwards to the half-way point. Always brush in the same direction downwards. This process is then repeated by beginning at the bottom or south end and working up to the middle.


9 The best type of oils to use for dressing candles are natural ones which can be obtained quite easily. Some occult suppliers will provide candle magic oils with exotic names. If the magician does not want to use these, he can select suitable oils or perfumes from his own sources. The oils soluble perfumes sold by craft shops for inclusion in candles can be recommended.


10 the candles you use can be colored in accordance with the following magical uses:


white- spirituality and peace

red- health,energy,strength,courage, sexual potency

pink- love affection and romance.

yellow- intellectualism, imagination, memory and creativity

green- fertility, abundance, good luck and harmony

blue-inspiration, occult wisdom, protection and devotion

purple Material wealth, higher psychic ability, spiritual power and idealism

silver- clairvoyance, inspiration, astral energy and intuition

orange- ambition. career matters and the law


11 If you wanted to use candle magic for healing, you would select a red candle to burn. To pass an exam, burn a yellow candle, to gain esoteric knowledge burn a blue candle or for material gain, burn a purple one. It is obvious these colors relate to the signs of the zodiac and the planetary forces.


12 The simples form of candle magic is to write doesn't the objective of your ritual on a virgin piece of paper. You can use color paper which matches the candle. Write your petition on the paper using a magical alphabet, such as theban, enochian, malachain,etc. As you write down what you want to accomplish through candle magic-- a new job, healing for a friend, a change of residence, a new love affair, etc.-- visualize your dream coming true. Visualize the circumstances under which you might be offered a new job, imagine your employer telling you that your salary has been increased or conjure up a vision of your perfect love partner.


13 When you have completed writing down your petitio, carefully fold up the paper in a deliberately slow fashion. Place the end of the folded paper in the candle flame and set light to it. As you do this concentrate once more on what you want from life.


14 When you have completed your ritual, allow the candle to have completely burned away. You do not need to stay with the candle after the ritual, but make sure that is safe and that red-hot wax will not cause damage or fire. Never re-use a candle which has been lit in any magical ritual. IT should only be used in that ritual and then allowed to burn away or be disposed of afterwards.


15 If you are conducting a magical ritual which involves two people (e.g. an absent healing for a person some distance away) then the second person can be symbolically represented during the ritual by another candle. /all you need to do is find out the subject's birth date and burn the appropriate candle for that zodiacal sign. These are as follows-


ARIES - red

TAURUS - green

GEMINI - yellow

CANCER - silver

LEO - orange

VIRGO - yellow

LIBRA - pink

SCORPIO - red

SAGITARIUS - purple

CAPRICORN - black

AQUARIUS - all colors

PISCES - mauve


Book of Shadows 

Sex & Magic

In this article I would like to address the issue of sex and magic. I am quite aware of the fact that this is a loaded subject. It is one of the oldest disciplines in occultism and virtually every magic tradition applies it somewhere down the road. Yet it has always been regarded as the innermost secret discipline. Witches, Shamans, Runesters, Yogis and Magicians of all varieties work with it in one form or another. To build up, strengthen, direct and aim this powerful energy is an awesome magical tool, as anyone who has ever worked with it knows. Being limited in time and space, but having such a wonderful and eclectic medium to work with, I want to give you a few unbiased ideas on the subject.


No discipline of magic has attracted as much mumbo jumbo or misinformation as sex magic does. Nothing stirs the mind more than the left and right of the so-called middle path quite as vividly. Nothing is more ancient, powerful and misunderstood as Sex magic. Yes, the market on Tantra is booming, as a visit to any occult book shop will show you. Yet well researched, practical introductions into sex magic are virtually non-existent. Male sexist tunnel vision abounds.


One of the reasons being that the general approach towards sexuality and women is steeped in Judeo-Christian hang ups. The most common approach seems to be: "Just lay down and be the altar dear, you are going to love it." Even such revolutionaries as Aleister Crowley have done very little to improve this. Louis Culling even dares to state in his contemporary work (1971), that a frigid woman is more conductive to sex magic practice than a sensual or, mind you, sexually aggressive one. For this would surely disturb ones concentration on the Great Work. No wonder that there are few women attracted to these kinds of partners! You will always get what you want in magic and the so-called true will does reveal itself in strange ways. Doing some soul searching and clarifying your motives is quite effective.


Now, regarding literature on this subject there is hope. My german friend Fra.: U.D. has written a comprehensive, pragmatic book on sex magic. It`s title is "Secrets of the German Sex Magicians" (Llewellyn) and he told me last weekend that it is available in the States right now. (I hope he will give me some extracts to post them here...) It beats everything that has ever been published on the subject. Get it!


Now let me point out, one more time, that magic is a practical science. Merely reading about it or going to a workshop will not get you anywhere. The multitude of sexual expressions is just as great and manifold as human behavior in general. Here, like everywhere in Chaos Magic, it is useful to keep in mind that if it works for you, use it! Remember, the real sex magicians, male and female, have always known that and discarded social conditioning and taboos, right along with the do`s and don`ts of dogma. We do magic to liberate ourselves. So if it is possible for one thing to be sacred we logically conclude that everything else can be sacred too.


Auto-, Hetero- and Homosexual expressions are equally valid in sex magic. It is more about expanding ones horizons that about finding a certain "right" way, partner or ritual to do it. The Chaos Magical paradigm kicks right in: Nothing is True, and Everything is Permitted!


The next issue I want to address is the Auto-erotic practice. So let me state this loud and clear: Without auto erotic practice it is impossible to achieve anything in Sex magic! Auto-eroticism is of central importance because it is the ideal practice and playground. It constitutes a powerful technique in itself, and it makes us independent of partners. Especially in the beginning it is much easier to explore, prolong and amplify orgasmic trance states. For this very same reason it is possible to do effective sex magic with a partner who knows nothing about it but working with a partner who is equally trained in this art is ever so much more effective. Most amateurs believe that sexual magic is something that solely happens between partners in a ritual, but in reality the vast majority of sex magical arts are performed auto-erotically.


Regarding the physical aspects of the sexual magical training first thing to consider is that your body is really _your temple_. And for it to be your ultimate tool and asset it has to be in peak condition. Physical and mental dependencies, be it alcohol, stimulants or even tobacco, will interfere with your ability to develop and direct this tool. I do not want to project a moral attitude on this, or any other subject, but mind, spirit and body are deeply intertwined. And the more you alter your mind from the outside by using drugs of any sort, the harder it gets to focus your will and physical reaction. If you are in a frizzy condition, you will get frizzy results! Here, as in all magic, the borders are fluid. A good training in practical magic will greatly enhance your sexual magic and vice versa.


A lot of physical exercises in sex magic derive from Tantra Yoga. The only point of disagreement appears to be the way of using the orgasm. In particular, the "traditional" Tantra authors seem to cling to the idea that there is only a limited amount of sperm available to men. Therefore this precious substance is carefully guarded, held back and reassimilated when spent. Western magic does not agree with this belief. Its approach is rather like: the more you spend - the more you get! This applies to male magicians, women have always been pretty much inexhaustible in their orgasmic capacity. What joins both is that the intent in Sex magic is much more result oriented and concrete than in Tantra, where it is mainly transcendental.


The longing for transcendence seems to be inherently natural in human behavior. Yet being western magicians living in the nineties we know that we have to handle the "real world", our physical reality first, and then we can move on to the loftier goals. A good manual for your physical preparation and training is "Stalking the Wild Orgasm" by Christopher Scott Kilham. Hie work not only includes some excellent yoga exercises, but also gives you some great clues regarding nutrition and aphrodisiacs. When you get going in this direction you will find that it soon penetrates into many other areas of your magical work. You will be in better physical shape, more relaxed, focused and grounded. Magic is a gut level art. We have to remove it from the intellectual stuff. Trust your own experiences. Strive to conduct your magic work from this part of your body where all magic originates - your loins. Have fun!


With fractalic greetings and laughter * Fra.: Apfelmann *

FROM THE ABSOLUTE TO MAN

OF the Absolute, the Infinite, the All-embracing, we can at our present stage know nothing, except that It is; we can say nothing that is not a limitation, and there-fore inaccurate.

in It are innumerable universes; in each universe countless solar systems. Each solar system is the expression of a mighty Being, whom we call the logos, the Word of God, the Solar Deity. He is to it all that men mean by God. He permeates it; there is nothing in it which is not He; it is the manifestation of Him in such matter as we can see. Yet He exists above it and outside it, living a stupendous life of His own among His Peers. As is said in an Eastern Scripture: "Having permeated this whole universe with one fragment of Myself I remain."

Of that higher life of His we can know nothing. But of the fragment of His life which energises His system we may know something in the lower levels of its manifestation. We may not see Him, but we may see His power at work. No one who is clairvoyant can be atheistic; the evidence is too tremendous.


Out of Himself He has called this mighty system into being. We who are in it are evolving fragments of His life, Sparks of His divine Fire; from Him we all have come; into Him we shall all return.

Many have asked why He has done this; why He has emanated from Himself all this system; why He has sent us forth to face the storms of life. We cannot know, nor is the question practical; suffice it that we are here, and we must do our best. Yet many philosophers have speculated on this point and many suggestions have been made. The most beautiful that I know is that of a Gnostic philosopher:

"God is Love, but Love itself cannot be perfect unless it has those upon whom it can be lavished and by whom it can be returned. Therefore He put forth of Himself into matter, and He limited His glory, in order that through this natural and slow process of evolution we might come into being; and we in turn according to His Will are to develop until we reach even His own level, and then the very love of God itself will become more perfect, because it will then be lavished on those, His own children, who will fully understand and return it, and so His great scheme will be realized and His Will, be done."


At what stupendous elevation His consciousness abides we know not, nor can we know its true nature as it shows itself there. But when He puts Himself down into such conditions as are within our reach, His manifestation is ever threefold, and so all religions have imaged Him as a Trinity. Three, yet fundamentally One; Three Persons (for person means a mask) yet one God, showing Himself in those Three Aspects. Three to us, looking at Them from below, because Their functions are different; one to Him, because He knows Them to be but facets of Himself.

All Three of these Aspects are concerned in the evolution of the solar system; all Three are also concerned in the evolution of man. This evolution is His Will; the method of it is His plan.

Next below this Solar Deity, yet also in some mysterious manner part of Him, come His seven Ministers, sometimes called the Planetary Spirits. Using an analogy drawn from the physiology of our own body, Their relation to Him is like that of the ganglia or the nerve centres to the brain. All evolution which comes forth from Him comes through one or other of Them.

Under Them in turn come vast hosts or orders of spiritual beings, whom we call angels or devas. We do not yet know all the functions which they fulfil in different parts of this wonderful scheme, but we find some of them intimately connected with the building of the system and the unfolding of life within it.


Here in our world there is a great Official who represents the Solar Deity and is in absolute control of all the evolution that takes place upon this planet. We may image Him as the true KING of this world and under Him are ministers in charge of different departments. One of these departments is concerned with the evolution of the different races of humanity so that for each great race there is a Head who founds it, differentiates it from all others, and watches over its development. Another department is that of religion and education, and it is from this that all the greatest teachers of history have come--that all religions have been sent forth. The great Official at the head of this department either comes Himself or sends one of His pupils to found a new religion when He decides that one is needed.

Therefore all religions, at the time of their first presentation to the world, have contained a definite statement of the Truth, and in its fundamentals this Truth has been always the same. The presentations of it have varied because of differences in the races to whom it was offered. The conditions of civilization and the degree of evolution obtained by various races have made it desirable to present this one Truth in divers forms. But the inner Truth is always the same, and the source from which it comes is the same, even though the external phases may appear to be different and even contradictory. It is foolish for men to wrangle over the question of the superiority of one teacher or one form of teaching to another, for the teacher is always one sent by the Great Brotherhood of Adepts, and in all its important points, in its ethical and moral principles, the teaching has always been the same.


There is in the world a body or Truth which lies at the back of all these religions, and represents the facts of nature as far as they are at present known to man. In the outer world, because of their ignorance of this, people are always disputing and arguing about whether there is a God; whether man survives death; whether definite progress is possible for him, and what is his relation to the universe. These questions are ever present in the mind of man as soon as intelligence is awakened. They are not unanswerable, as is frequently supposed; the answers to them are within the reach of anyone who will make proper efforts to find them. The truth is obtainable, and the conditions of its attainment are possible of achievement by anyone who will make the effort.

In the earlier stages of the development of humanity the great Officials of the Hierarchy are provided from outside, from other and more highly evolved parts of the system, but as soon as men can be trained to the necessary level of power and wisdom these offices are held by them. In order to be fit to hold such an office a man must raise himself to a very high level, and must become what is called an Adept--a being of goodness, power and wisdom so great that He towers above the rest of humanity, for He has already attained the summit of ordinary human evolution; He has achieved that which the plan of the Deity marked out for Him to achieve during this age or dispensation. But His evolution later on continues beyond that level--continues to divinity.


A large number of men have attained the Adept level--men not of one nation, but of all the leading nations of the world--rare souls who with indomitable courage have stormed the fortresses of nature, and captured her innermost secrets, and so have truly earned the right to be called Adepts. Among Them there are many degrees and many lines of activity; but always some of Them remain within touch of our earth as members of this Hierarchy which has in charge the administration of the affairs of our world and of the spiritual evolution of our humanity.

This august body is often called the Great White Brotherhood, but its members are not a community all living together. Each of Them, to a large extent, draws Himself apart from the world, and They are in constant communication with one another and with Their Head; but Their knowledge of higher forces is so great that this is achieved without any necessity for meeting in the physical world. In many cases They continue to live each in His own country, and Their power remains unsuspected among those who live near Them. Any man who will may attract Their attention, but he can do it only by showing himself worthy of Their notice. None need fear that his efforts will pass unnoticed; such over-sight is impossible, for the man who is devoting himself to service such as this, stands out from the rest of humanity like a great flame in a dark night. A few of these great Adepts, who are thus working for the good of the world, are willing to take as apprentices those who have resolved to devote themselves utterly to the service of mankind; such Adepts are called Masters. One of these apprentices was Helena Petrovna Blavatsky--a great soul who was sent out to offer knowledge to the world. With Colonel Henry Steel Olcott she founded The Theosophical Society for the spread of this knowledge which she had to give. Among those who came into contact with her in those early days was Mr. A. P. Sinnett, the editor of The Pioneer, and his keen intellect at once grasped the magnitude and the importance of the teaching which she put before him. Although Madame Blavatsky her-self had previously written Isis Unveiled, it had attracted but little attention, and it was Mr. Sinnett who first made the teaching really available for western readers in his two books, The Occult World and Esoteric Buddhism.


It was through these works that I myself first came to know their author, and afterwards Madame Blavatsky herself; from both of them I learned much. When I asked Madame Blavatsky how one could learn still more, how one could make definite progress along the Path which she pointed out to us, she told me of the possibility that other students might be accepted as apprentices by the great Masters, even as she herself had been accepted, and that the only way to gain such acceptance was to show oneself worthy of it by earnest and altruistic work. She told me that to reach that goal a man must be absolutely one-pointed in his determination; that no one who tried to serve both God and Mammon could ever hope to succeed. One of these Masters Himself had said: "In order to succeed, a pupil must leave his own world and come into ours."

This means that he must cease to be one of the majority who live for wealth and power, and must join the tiny minority who care nothing for such things, but live only in order to devote themselves selflessly to the good of the world. She warned us clearly that the way was difficult to tread, that we should be misunderstood and reviled by those who still lived in the world, and that we had nothing to look forward to but the hardest of hard work; and though the result was sure, no one could foretell how long it would take to arrive at it. Some of us accepted these conditions joyfully, and we have never for a moment regretted the decision.


After some years of work I had the privilege of coming into contact with these great Masters of the Wisdom; from Them I learnt many things--among others, how to verify for myself at first hand most of the teachings which They had given. So that, in this matter, I write of what I know, and what I have seen for myself. Certain points are mentioned in the teaching, for the verification of which powers are required far beyond anything which I have gained so far. Of them, I can say only that they are consistent with what I do know, and in many cases are necessary as hypotheses to account for what I have seen. They came to me, along with the rest of the Theosophical system, upon the authority of these mighty Teachers. Since then I have learnt to examine for myself by far the greater part of what I was told, and I have found the information given to me to be correct in every particular; therefore I am justified in assuming the probability that that other part, which as yet I cannot verify, will also prove to be correct when I arrive at its level.

To attain the honour of being accepted as an apprentice of one of the Masters of the Wisdom is the object set before himself by every earnest Theosophical student.

But it means a determined effort. There have always been men who were willing to make the necessary effort, and therefore there have always been men who knew. The knowledge is so transcendent that when a man grasps it fully he becomes more than man and he passes beyond our ken.


But there are stages in the acquirement of this knowledge, and we may learn much if we will, from those who themselves are still in process of learning; for all human beings stand on one or other of the rungs of the ladder of evolution. The primitive stand at its foot; we who are civilized beings have already climbed part of the way. But though we can look back and see rungs of the ladder below us which we have already passed, we may also look up and see many rungs above us to which we have not yet attained. Just as men are standing even now on each of the rungs below us, so that we can see the stages by which man has mounted, so also are there men standing on each of the rungs above us, so that from studying them we may see how man shall mount in the future. Precisely because we see men on every step of this ladder, which leads up to a glory which as yet we have no words to express, we know that the ascent to that glory is possible for us. Those who stand high above us, so high that They seem to us as gods in Their marvellous knowledge and power, tell us that They stood not long since where we are standing now, and They indicate to us clearly the steps which lie between, which we also must tread if we would be as They.


A TEXTBOOK OF THEOSOPHY by C. W. LEADBEATER

THE MYSTERIES OF MITHRA

      THE ORIGINS OF MITHRAISM


IN THAT unknown epoch when the ancestors of the Persians were still united with those of the Hindus, they were already worshippers of Mithra. The hymns of the Vedas celebrated his name, as did those of the Avesta, and despite the differences obtaining between the two theological systems of which these books were the expression, the Vedic Mitra and the Iranian Mithra have preserved so many traits of resemblance that it is impossible to entertain any doubt concerning their common origin. Both religions saw in him a god of light, invoked together with Heaven, bearing in the one case the name of Varuna and in the other that of Ahura; in ethics he was recognized as the protector of truth, the antagonist of falsehood and error. But the sacred poetry of India has preserved of him an obscured memory only. A single fragment, and even that partially effaced, is all that has been specially dedicated to him. He appears mainly in incidental allusions,--the silent witnesses of his ancient grandeur. Still, though his physiognomy is not so distinctly limned in the Sanskrit literature as it is in the Zend writings, the faintness of its outlines is not sufficient to disguise the primitive identity of his character.


According to a recent theory, this god, with whom the peoples of Europe were unacquainted, was not a member of the ancient Aryan pantheon. Mitra-Varuna, and the five other Adityas celebrated by the Vedas, likewise Mithra-Ahura and the Amshaspands, who, according to the Avestan conception surround the Creator, are on this theory nothing but the sun, the moon, and the planets, the worship of which was adopted by the Indo-Iranians "from a neighboring people, their superiors in the knowledge of the starry firmament," who could be none other than the Accadian or Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia. 1 But this hypothetical adoption, if it really took place, must have occurred in a prehistoric epoch, and, without attempting to dissipate the obscurity of these primitive times, it will be sufficient for us to state that the tribes of Iran never ceased to worship Mithra from their first assumption of worldly power till the day of their conversion to Islam.

In the Avesta, Mithra is the genius of the celestial light. He appears before sunrise on the rocky summits of the mountains; during the day he traverses the wide firmament in his chariot drawn by four white horses, and when night falls he still illumines with flickering glow the surface of the earth, "ever waking, ever watchful." He is neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, but with "his hundred ears and his hundred eyes" watches constantly the world. Mithra hears all, sees all, knows all: none can deceive him. By a natural transition he became for ethics the god of truth and integrity, the one that was invoked in solemn oaths, that pledged the fulfilment of contracts, that punished perjurers


The light that dissipates darkness restores happiness and life on earth; the heat that accompanies it fecundates nature. Mithra is "the lord of wide pastures," the one that renders them fertile. "He giveth increase, he giveth abundance, he giveth cattle, he giveth progeny and life." He scatters the waters of the heavens and causes the plants to spring forth from the ground; on them that honor him, he bestows health of body, abundance of riches, and talented posterity. For he is the dispenser not only of material blessings but of spiritual advantages as well. His is the beneficent genius that accords peace of conscience, wisdom, and honor along with prosperity, and causes harmony to reign among all his votaries. The devas, who inhabit the places of darkness, disseminate on earth along with barrenness and suffering all manner of vice and impurity. Mithra, "wakeful and sleepless, protects the creation of Mazda" against their machinations. He combats unceasingly the spirits of evil; and the iniquitous that serve them feel also the terrible visitations of his wrath. From his celestial eyrie he spies out his enemies; armed in fullest panoply he swoops down upon them, scatters and slaughters them. He desolates and lays waste the homes of the wicked, he annihilates the tribes and the nations that are hostile to him. On the other hand he is the puissant ally of the faithful in their warlike expeditions. The blows of their enemies "miss their mark, for Mithra, sore incensed, receives them"; and he assures victory unto them that "have had fit instruction in the Good, that honor him and offer him the sacrificial libations." 1

This character of god of hosts, which has been the predominating trait of Mithra from the days of the Achæmenides, undoubtedly became accentuated in the period of confusion during which the Iranian tribes were still at war with one another; but it is after all only the development of the ancient conception of struggle between day and night. In general, the picture that the Avesta offers us of the old Aryan deity, is, as we have already said, similar to that which the Vedas have drawn in less marked outlines, and it hence follows that Mazdaism left its main primitive foundation unaltered.


Still, though the Avestan hymns furnish the distinctest glimpses of the true physiognomy of the ancient god of light, the Zoroastrian system, in adopting his worship, has singularly lessened his importance. As the price of his admission to the Avestan Heaven, he was compelled to submit to its laws. Theology had placed Ahura-Mazda on the pinnacle of the celestial hierarchy, and thenceforward it could recognize none as his peer. Mithra was not even made one of the six Amshaspands that aided the Supreme Deity in governing the universe. He was relegated, with the majority of the ancient divinities of nature, to the host of lesser genii or yazatas created by Mazda. He was associated with some of the deified abstractions which the Persians had learned to worship. As protector of warriors, he received for his companion, Verethraghna, or Victory; as the defender of the truth, he was associated with the pious Sraosha, or Obedience to divine law, with Rashnu, Justice, with Arshtât, Rectitude. As the tutelar genius of prosperity, he is invoked with Ashi-Vañuhi, Riches, and with Pâreñdî, Abundance. In company with Sraosha and Rashnu, he protects the soul of the just against the demons that seek to drag it down to Hell, and under their guardianship it soars aloft to Paradise. This Iranian belief gave birth to the doctrine of redemption by Mithra, which we find developed in the Occident.


At the same time, his cult was subjected to a rigorous ceremonial, conforming to the Mazdean liturgy. Sacrificial offerings were made to him of "small cattle and large, and of flying birds." These immolations were preceded or accompanied with the usual libations of the juice of Haoma, and with the recitation of ritual prayers,--the bundle of sacred twigs (baresman) always in the hand. But before daring to approach the altar, the votary was obliged to purify himself by repeated ablutions and flagellations. These rigorous prescriptions recall the rite of baptism and the corporeal tests imposed on the Roman neophytes before initiation.

Mithra, thus, was adopted in the theological system of Zoroastrianism; a convenient place was assigned to him in the divine hierarchy; he was associated with companions of unimpeachable orthodoxy; homage was rendered to him on the same footing with the other genii. But his puissant personality had not bent lightly to the rigorous restrictions that had been imposed upon him, and there are to be found in the sacred text vestiges of a more ancient conception, according to which he occupied in the Iranian pantheon a much more elevated position. Several times he is invoked in company with Ahura: the two gods form a pair, for the light of Heaven and Heaven itself are in their nature inseparable. Furthermore, if it is said that Ahura created Mithra as he did all things, it is likewise said that he made him just as great and worthy as himself. Mithra is indeed a yazata, but he is also the most potent and most glorious of the yazata. "Ahura-Mazda established him to maintain and watch over all this moving world." 1 It is through the agency of this ever-victorious warrior that the Supreme Being destroys the demons and causes even the Spirit of Evil, Ahriman himself, to tremble.


Compare these texts with the celebrated passage in which Plutarch 2 expounds the dualistic doctrine of the Persians: Oromazes dwells in the domain of eternal light "as far above the sun as the sun is distant from the earth"; Ahriman reigns in the realm of darkness, and Mithra occupies an intermediary place between them. The beginning of the Bundahish 3 expounds a quite similar theory, save that in place of Mithra it is the air (Vayu) that is placed between Ormazd and Ahriman. The contradiction is only one of terms, for according to Iranian ideas the air is indissolubly conjoined with the light, which it is thought to support. In fine, a supreme god, enthroned in the empyrean above the stars, where a perpetual serenity exists; below him an active deity, his emissary and chief of the celestial armies in their ceaseless combat with the Spirit of Darkness, who from the bowels of Hell sends forth his devas to the surface of the earth,--this is the religious conception, far simpler than that of Zoroastrianism, which appears to have been generally accepted among the subjects of the Achæmenides.

The conspicuous rôle that the religion of the ancient Persians accorded to Mithra is attested by a multitude of proofs. He alone, with the goddess Anâhita, is invoked in the inscriptions of Artaxerxes alongside of Ahura-Mazda. The "great kings" were certainly very closely attached to him, and looked upon him as their special protector. It is he whom they call to bear witness to the truth of their words, and whom they invoke on the eve of battle. They unquestionably regarded him as the god that brought victory to monarchs; he it was, they thought, who caused that mysterious light to descend upon them which, according to the Mazdean belief, is a guaranty of perpetual success to princes, whose authority it consecrates.

The nobility followed the example of the sovereign. The great number of theophorous, or god-bearing, names, compounded with that of Mithra, which were borne by their members from remotest antiquity, is proof of the fact that the reverence for this god was general among them.


Mithra occupied a large place in the official cult. In the calendar the seventh month was dedicated to him and also doubtless the sixteenth day of each month. At the time of his festival, the king, if we may believe Ctesias, 1 was permitted to indulge in copious libations in his honor and to execute the sacred dances. Certainly this festival was the occasion of solemn sacrifices and stately ceremonies. The Mithrakana were famed throughout all Hither Asia, and in their form Mihragân were destined, in modern times, to be celebrated at the commencement of winter by Mussulman Persia. The fame of Mithra extended to the borders of the Ægean Sea; he is the only Iranian god whose name was popular in ancient Greece, and this fact alone proves how deeply he was venerated by the nations of the great neighboring empire.

The religion observed by the monarch and by the entire aristocracy that aided him in governing his vast territories could not possibly remain confined to a few provinces of his empire. We know that Artaxerxes Ochus had caused statues of the goddess Anâhita to be erected in his different capitals, at Babylon, Damascus, and Sardis, as well as at Susa, Ecbatana, and Persepolis. Babylon, in particular, being the winter residence of the sovereigns, was the seat of a numerous body of official clergy, called Magi, who sat in authority over the indigenous priests. The prerogatives that the imperial protocol guaranteed to this official clergy could not render them exempt from the influence of the powerful sacerdotal caste that flourished beside them. The erudite and refined theology of the Chaldæans was thus superposed on the primitive Mazdean belief, which was rather a congeries of traditions than a well -established body of definite dogmas. The legends of the two religions were assimilated, their divinities -were identified, and the Semitic worship of the stars (astrolatry), the monstrous fruit of long-continued scientific observations, became amalgamated with the nature-myths of the Iranians. Ahura-Mazda was confounded with Bel, who reigned over the heavens; Anâhita was likened to Ishtar, who presided over the planet Venus; while Mithra became the Sun, Shamash. As Mithra in Persia, so Shamash in Babylon is the god of justice; like him, he also appears in the east, on the summits of mountains, and pursues his daily course across the heavens in a resplendent chariot; like him, finally, he too gives victory to the arms of warriors, and is the protector of kings. The transformation wrought by Semitic theories in the beliefs of the Persians was of so profound a character that, centuries after, in Rome, the original home of Mithra was not infrequently placed on the banks of the Euphrates. According to Ptolemæus, 1 this potent solar deity was worshipped in all the countries that stretched from India to Assyria.


But Babylon was a step only in the propagation of Mazdaism. Very early the Magi had crossed Mesopotamia and penetrated to the heart of Asia Minor. Even under the first of the Achæmenides, it appears, they established themselves in multitudes in Armenia, where the indigenous religion gradually succumbed to their cult, and also in Cappadocia, where their altars still burned in great numbers in the days of the famous geographer Strabo. They swarmed, at a very remote epoch, into distant Pontus, into Galatia, into Phrygia. In Lydia even, under the reign of the Antonines, their descendants still chanted their barbaric hymns in a sanctuary attributed to Cyrus. These communities, in Cappadocia at least, were destined to survive the triumph of Christianity and to be perpetuated until the fifth century of our era, faithfully transmitting from generation to generation their manners, usages, and modes of worship.

At first blush the fall of the empire of Darius would appear to have been necessarily fatal to these religious colonies, so widely scattered and henceforward to be severed from the country of their birth. But in point of fact it was precisely the contrary that happened, and the Magi found in the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great, no less efficient protection than that which they

enjoyed under the Great King and his satraps. After the dismemberment of the empire of Alexander (323 B.C.), there were established in Pontus, Cappadocia, Armenia, and Commagene, dynasties which the complaisant genealogists of the day feigned to trace back to the Achæmenian kings. Whether these royal houses were of Iranian extraction or not, their supposititious descent nevertheless imposed upon them the obligation of worshipping the gods of their fictitious ancestors. In opposition to the Greek kings of Pergamon and Antioch, they represented the ancient traditions in religion and politics. These princes and the magnates of their entourage took a sort of aristocratic pride in slavishly imitating the ancient masters of Asia. While not evincing outspoken hostility to other religions practised in their domains, they yet reserved especial favors for the temples of the Mazdean divinities. Oromazes (Ahura-Mazda), Omanos (Vohumano), Artagnes (Verethraghna), Anaïtis (Anâhita), and still others received their homage. But Mithra, above all, was the object of their predilection. The monarchs of these nations cherished for him a devotion that was in some measure personal, as the frequency of the name Mithradates in all their families attests. Evidently Mithra had remained for them, as he had been for Artaxerxes and Darius, the god that granted monarchs victory,--the manifestation and enduring guaranty of their legitimate rights.


This reverence for Persian customs, inherited from legendary ancestors, this idea that piety is the bulwark of the throne and the sole condition of success, is explicitly affirmed in the pompous inscription 1 engraved on the colossal tomb that Antiochus I., Epiphanes, of Commagene (69-34 B.C.), erected on a spur of the mountain-range Taurus, commanding a distant view of the valley of the Euphrates (Figure I). But, being a descendant by his mother of the Seleucidæ of Syria, and supposedly by his father of Darius, son of Hystaspes, the king of Commagene merged the memories of his double origin, and blended together the gods and the rites of the Persians and the Greeks, just as in his own dynasty the name of Antiochus alternated with that of Mithridates.

Similarly in the neighboring countries, the Iranian princes and priests gradually succumbed to the growing power of the Grecian civilization. Under the Achæmenides, all the different nations lying between the Pontus Euxinus and Mount Taurus were suffered by the tolerance of the central authority to practise their local cults, customs, and languages. But in the great confusion caused by the collapse of the Persian empire, all political and religious barriers were demolished. Heterogeneous races had suddenly come in contact with one another, and as a result Hither Asia passed through a phase of syncretism analogous to that which is more distinctly observable under the Roman empire. The contact of all the theologies of the Orient and all the philosophies of Greece produced the most startling combinations, and the competition between the different creeds became exceedingly brisk. Many of the Magi, from Armenia to Phrygia and Lydia, then doubtless departed from their traditional reserve to devote themselves to active propaganda, and like the Jews of the same epoch they succeeded in gathering around them numerous proselytes. Later, when persecuted by the Christian emperors, they were obliged to revert to their quondam exclusiveness, and to relapse into a rigorism that became more and more inaccessible.


It was undoubtedly during the period of moral and religious fermentation provoked by the Macedonian conquest that Mithraism received approximately its definitive form. It was already thoroughly consolidated when it spread throughout the Roman empire. Its dogmas and its liturgic traditions must have been firmly established from the beginning of its diffusion. But unfortunately we are unable to determine precisely either the country or the period of time in which Mazdaism assumed the characteristics that distinguished it in Italy. Our ignorance of the religious movements that agitated the Orient in the Alexandrian epoch, the almost complete absence of direct testimony bearing on the history of the Iranian sects during the first three centuries before our era, are our main obstacles in obtaining certain knowledge of the development of Parseeism. The most we can do is to unravel the principal factors that combined to transform the religion of the Magi of Asia Minor, and endeavor to show how in different regions varying influences variously altered its original character.


In Armenia, Mazdaism had coalesced with the national beliefs of the country and also with a Semitic element imported from Syria. Mithra remained one of the principal divinities of the syncretic theology that issued from this triple influence. As in the Occident, some saw in Mithra the genius of fire, others identified him with the sun; and fantastic legends were woven about his name. He was said to have sprung from the incestuous intercourse of Ahura-Mazda with his own mother, and again to have been the offspring of a common mortal. We shall refrain from dwelling upon these and other singular myths. Their character is radically different from the dogmas accepted by the Occidental votaries of the Persian god. That peculiar admixture of disparate doctrines which constituted the religion of the Armenians appears to have had no other relationship with Mithraism than that of a partial community of origin.

In the remaining portions of Asia Minor the changes which Mazdaism underwent were far from being as profound as in Armenia. The opposition between the indigenous cults and the religion whose Iranian origin its votaries delighted in recalling, never ceased to be felt. The pure doctrine of which the worshippers of fire were the guardians could not reconcile itself easily with the orgies celebrated in honor of the lover of Cybele. Nevertheless, during the long centuries that the emigrant Magi lived peacefully among the autochthonous tribes, certain amalgamations of the conceptions of the two races could not help being effected. In Pontus, Mithra is represented on horseback like Men, the lunar god honored throughout the entire peninsula. In other places, he is pictured in broad, slit trousers (anaxyrides), recalling to mind the mutilation of Attis. In Lydia, Mithra-Anâhita became Sabazius-Anaïtis. Other local divinities likewise lent themselves to identification with the powerful yazata. It would appear as if the priests of these uncultured countries had endeavored to make their popular gods the compeers of those whom the princes and nobility worshipped. But we have too little knowledge of the religions of these countries to determine the precise features which they respectively derived from Parseeism or imparted to it. That there was a reciprocal influence we definitely know, but its precise scope we are unable to ascertain. Still, however superficial it may have been, 1 it certainly did prepare for the intimate union which was soon to be effected in the West between the Mysteries of Mithra and those of the Great Mother.


When, as the outcome of the expedition of Alexander (334-323 B.C.), the civilization of Greece spread throughout all Hither Asia, it impressed itself upon Mazdaism as far east as Bactriana. Nevertheless, Iranism, if we may employ such a designation, never surrendered to Hellenism. Iran proper soon recovered its moral autonomy, as well as its political independence; and generally speaking, the power of resistance offered by Persian traditions to an assimilation which was elsewhere easily effected is one of the most salient traits of the history of the relations of Greece with the Orient. But the Magi of Asia Minor, being much nearer to the great foci of Occidental culture, were more vividly illumined by their radiation. Without suffering themselves to be absorbed by the religion of the conquering strangers, they combined their cults with it. In order to harmonize their barbaric beliefs with the Hellenic ideas, recourse was had to the ancient practice of identification. They strove to demonstrate that the Mazdean heaven was inhabited by the same denizens as Olympus: Ahura-Mazda as Supreme Being was confounded with Zeus; Verethraghna, the victorious hero, with Heracles; Anâhita, to whom the bull was consecrated, became Artemis Tauropolos, and the identification went so far as to localize in her temples the fable of Orestes. Mithra, already regarded in Babylon as the peer of Shamash, was naturally associated with Helios; but he was not subordinated to him, and his Persian name was never replaced in the liturgy by a translation, as had been the case with the other divinities worshipped in the Mysteries.


he synonomy thus speciously established between appellations having no relationship did not remain the exclusive diversion of the mythologists; it was attended with the grave consequence that the vague personifications conceived by the Oriental imagination now assumed the precise forms with which the Greek artists had invested the Olympian gods. Possibly they had never before been represented in the guise of the human form, or if images of them existed in imitation of the

Assyrian idols they were doubtless both grotesque and crude. In thus imparting to the Mazdean heroes all the seductiveness of the Hellenic ideal, the conception of their character was necessarily modified; and, pruned of their exotic features, they were rendered more readily acceptable to the Occidental peoples. One of the indispensable conditions for the success of this exotic religion in the Roman world was fulfilled when towards the second century before our era a sculptor of the school of Pergamon composed the pathetic group of Mithra Tauroctonos, to which universal custom thenceforward reserved the place of honor in the apse of the spelæa.

But not only did art employ its powers to soften the repulsive features which these rude Mysteries might possess for minds formed in the schools of Greece; philosophy also strove to reconcile their doctrines with its teachings, or rather the Asiatic priests pretended to discover in their sacred traditions the theories of the philosophic sects. None of these sects so readily lent itself to alliance with the popular devotion as that of the Stoa, and its influence on the formation of Mithraism was profound. An ancient myth sung by the Magi is quoted by Dion Chrysostomos 1 on account of its allegorical resemblance to the Stoic cosmology; and many other Persian ideas were similarly modified by the pantheistic conceptions of the disciples of Zeno. Thinkers accustomed themselves more and more to discovering in the dogmas and liturgic usages of the Orientals the obscure reflections of an ancient wisdom, and these tendencies harmonized too much with the pretensions and the interest of the Mazdean clergy not to be encouraged by them with every means in their power.


But if philosophical speculation transformed the character of the beliefs of the Magi, investing them with a scope which they did not originally possess, its influence was nevertheless upon the whole conservative rather than revolutionary. The very fact that it invested legends which were ofttimes puerile with a symbolical significance, that it furnished rational explanations for usages which were apparently absurd, did much towards insuring their perpetuity. If the theological foundation of the religion was sensibly modified, its liturgic framework remained relatively fixed, and the changes wrought in the dogma were in accord with the reverence due to the ritual. The superstitious formalism of which the minute prescriptions of the Vendidad were the expression is certainly prior to the period of the Sassanids. The sacrifices which the Magi of Cappadocia offered in the time of Strabo (circa 63 B.C.-21 A.D.) are reminiscent of all the peculiarities of the Avestan liturgy. It was the same psalmodic prayers before the altar of fire; and the same bundle of sacred twigs (baresman); the same oblations of milk, oil, and honey; the same precautions lest the breath of the officiating priest should contaminate the divine flame. The inscription of Antiochus of Commagene (69-34 B.C.) in the rules that it prescribes gives evidence of a like scrupulous fidelity to the ancient Iranian customs. The king exults in having always honored the gods of his ancestors according to the tradition of the Persians and the Greeks; he expresses the desire that the priests established in the new temple shall wear the sacerdotal vestments of the same Persians, and that they shall officiate conformably to the ancient sacred custom. The sixteenth day of each month, which is to be specially celebrated, is not to be the birthday of the king alone, but also the day which from time immemorial was specially consecrated to Mithra. Many, many years after, another

Commagenean, Lucian of Samosata, in a passage apparently inspired by practices he had witnessed in his own country, could still deride the repeated purifications, the interminable chants, and the long Medean robes of the sectarians of Zoroaster. 1 Furthermore, he taunted them with being ignorant even of Greek and with mumbling an incoherent and unintelligible gibberish.


The conservative spirit of the Magi of Cappadocia, which bound them to the time-worn usages that had been handed down from generation to generation, abated not one jot of its power after the triumph of Christianity; and St. Basil 3 has recorded the fact of its persistence as late as the end of the fourth century. Even in Italy it is certain that the Iranian Mysteries never ceased to retain a goodly proportion of the ritual forms that Mazdaism had observed in Asia Minor time out of mind. 4 The principal innovation consisted in substituting for the Persian as the liturgic language, the Greek, and later perhaps the Latin. This reform presupposes the existence of sacred books, and it is probable that subsequently to the Alexandrian epoch the prayers and canticles that had been originally transmitted orally were committed to writing, lest their memory should fade forever. But this necessary accommodation to the new environments did not prevent Mithraism from preserving to the very end a ceremonial which was essentially Persian.

The Greek name of "Mysteries" which writers have applied to this religion should not mislead us. The adepts of Mithraism did not imitate the Hellenic cults in the organization of their secret societies, the esoteric doctrine of which was made known only after a succession of graduated initiations. In Persia itself the Magi constituted an exclusive caste, which appears to have been subdivided into several subordinate classes. And those of them who took up their abode in the midst of foreign nations different in language and manners were still more jealous in concealing their hereditary faith from the profane. The knowledge of their arcana gave them a lofty consciousness of their moral superiority and insured their prestige over the ignorant populations that surrounded them. It is probable that the Mazdean priesthood in Asia Minor as in Persia was primitively the hereditary attribute of a tribe, in which it was handed down from father to son; that afterwards its incumbents consented, after appropriate ceremonies of initiation, to communicate its secret dogmas to strangers, and that these proselytes were then gradually admitted to all the different ceremonies of the cult. The Iranian diaspora is comparable in this respect, as in many others, with that of the Jews. Usage soon distinguished between the different

classes of neophytes, ultimately culminating in the establishment of a fixed hierarchy. But the complete revelation of the sacred beliefs and practices was always reserved for the privileged few; and this mystic knowledge appeared to increase in excellence in proportion as it became more occult.


All the original rites that characterized the Mithraic cult of the Romans unquestionably go back to Asiatic origins: the animal disguises used in certain ceremonies are a survival of a very widely-diffused prehistoric custom which still survives in our day; the practice of consecrating mountain caves to the god is undoubtedly a heritage of the time when temples were not yet constructed; the cruel tests imposed on the initiated recall the bloody mutilations that the servitors of Mâ and of Cybele perpetrated. Similarly, the legends of which Mithra is the hero cannot have been invented save in a pastoral epoch. These antique traditions of a primitive and crude civilization subsist in the Mysteries by the side of a subtle theology and a lofty system of ethics.

An analysis of the constituent elements of Mithraism, like a cross-section of a geological formation, shows the stratifications of this composite mass in their regular order of deposition. The basal layer of this religion, its lower and primordial stratum, is the faith of ancient Iran, from which it took its origin.

Above this Mazdean substratum was deposited in Babylon a thick sediment of Semitic doctrines, and afterwards the local beliefs of Asia Minor added to it their alluvial deposits. Finally, a luxuriant vegetation of Hellenic ideas burst forth from this fertile soil and partly concealed from view its true original nature.


This composite religion, in which so many heterogeneous elements were welded together, is the adequate expression of the complex civilization that flourished in the Alexandrian epoch in Armenia, Cappadocia, and Pontus. If Mithridates Eupator had realized his ambitious dreams, this Hellenized Parseeism would doubtless have become the state-religion of a vast Asiatic empire. But the course of its destinies was changed by the vanquishment of this great adversary of Rome (66 B.C.). The débris of the Pontic armies and fleets, the fugitives driven out by the war and flocking in from all parts of the Orient, disseminated the Iranian Mysteries among that nation of pirates that rose to power under the protecting shelter of the mountains of Cilicia. Mithra became firmly established in this country, in which Tarsus continued to worship him until the downfall of the empire. Supported by its bellicose religion, this republic of adventurers dared to dispute the supremacy of the seas with the Roman colossus. Doubtless they considered themselves the chosen nation, destined to carry to victory the religion of the invincible god. Strong in the consciousness of his protection, these audacious mariners boldly pillaged the most venerated sanctuaries of Greece and Italy, and the Latin world rang for the first time with the name of the barbaric divinity that was soon to impose upon it his adoration.


THE MYSTERIES OF MITHRA by Franz Cumont

OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND THEIR NATURAL QUALITIES

IT is necessary that we should know and understand the nature and quality of the four elements, in order to our being perfect in the principles and ground-work of our studies in the Talismanic, or Magical Art.


Therefore, there are four elements, the original grounds of all corporeal things, viz. fire, earth, water, and air, of which elements all inferior bodies are compounded; not by way of being heaped up together, but by transmutation and union; and when they are destroyed, they are resolved into elements. But there are none of the sensible elements that are pure; but they are, more or less, mixed, and apt to be changed the one into the other: even as earth, being moistened and dissolved, becomes water, but the same being made thick and hard, becomes earth again; and being evaporated through heat it passes into air, and that being kindled into fire, and this being extinguished, into air gain, but being cooled after burning, becomes earth again, or else stone, or sulphur; and this is clearly demonstrated by lightning. Now every one of these elements have two specifical properties: the former whereof it retains as proper to itself; in the other, as a mean, it agrees with that which comes directly after it. For fire is hot and dry--earth, cold and dry;--water, cold and moist--and air, hot and moist. And so in this manner the elements, according to two contrary qualities, are opposite one to the other: as fire to water, and earth to air. Likewise, the elements are contrary one to the other n another account: two are heavy, as earth and water--and the others are light, as fire and air; therefore the Stoics called the former, passives--but the latter, actives.


And Plato distinguishes them after another manner, and assigns to each of them three qualities, viz. to the fire, brightness, thinness, and motion--to the earth, darkness, thickness, and quietness; and, according to these qualities, the elements of fire and earth are contrary. Now the other elements borrow their qualities from these, so that the air receives two qualities from the fire,--thinness, and motion; and the earth one, viz. darkness. In like manner water receives two qualities of the earth,--darkness and thickness; and the fire one, viz. motion. But fire is twice as thin as air, thrice more moveable, and four times brighter; the air is twice more bright, thrice more thin, and four times more moveable. Therefore, as fire is to air, so is air to water, and water to the earth; and again, as the earth is to the water, so is water to air, and air to fire. And this is the root and foundation of all bodies, natures, and wonderful works; and he who can know, and thoroughly understand these qualities of the elements, and their mixtures, shall bring to pass wonderful and astonishing things in magic.


Now each of these elements have a threefold consideration, so that the number of four may make up the number of twelve; and, by passing by the number of seven into ten, there may be a progress to the supreme unity upon which all virtue and wonderful things do depend. Of the first order are the pure elements, which are neither compounded, changed, or mixed, but are incorruptible; and not OF which, but THROUGH which, the virtues of all natural things are brought forth to act. No man is able fully to declare their virtues, because they can do all things upon all things. He who remains ignorant of these, shall never be able to bring to pass any wonderful matter.

Of the second order are elements that are compounded, changeable, and impure; yet such as may, by art, be reduced to their pure simplicity; whose virtue, when they are thus reduced, doth, above all things, perfect all occult and common operations of Nature; and these are the foundation of the whole of Natural Magic.

Of the third order, are those elements which originally and of themselves are not elements, but are twice compounded, various and changeable into another. These are the infallible medium, and are called the middle nature, or soul of the middle nature; very few there are that understand the deep mysteries thereof. In them is, by means of certain numbers, degrees, and orders, the perfection of every effect in what thing soever, whether natural, celestial, or supercelestial: they are full of wonders and mysteries, and are operative as in Magic natural, so divine. For from these, through them, proceeds the binding, loosing, and transmutation of all things--the knowledge and foretelling of things to come--also, the expelling of evil, and the gaining of good spirits. Let no one, therefore, without these three sorts of elements, and the true knowledge thereof, be confident that he can work any thing in the Occult Science of Magic and Nature.


But whosoever shall know how to reduce those of one order into another, impure into pure, compounded into simple, and shall understand distinctly the nature, virtue, and power of them, in number, degrees, and order, without dividing the substance, he shall easily attain to the knowledge and perfect operation of all natural things, and celestial secrets likewise; and this is the perfection of the Cabala, which teaches all these before mentioned; and, by a perfect knowledge thereof, we perform many rare and wonderful experiments.


The Magus by Francis Barrett

King Solomon's Temple

THIS section illustrates certain hieroglyphical emblems, and inculcates many useful and impressive moral lessons. It also details many particulars relative to the building of the Temple at Jerusalem.

This magnificent structure was founded in the fourth year of the reign of SOLOMON, on the second day of the month Zif, being the second month of the sacred year. It was located on Mount Moriah, near the place where ABRAHAM was about to offer up his son ISAAC, and where DAVID met and appeased the destroying angel. JOSEPHUS informs us that, although more than seven years were occupied in building it, yet, during the whole term, it did not rain in the day-time, that the workmen might not be obstructed in their labor. From sacred history we also learn, that there was not the sound of ax, hammer, or any tool of iron, heard in the house while it was building. It is said to have been supported by fourteen hundred and fifty-three columns, and two thousand nine hundred and six pilasters, all hewn from the finest Parian marble.


It was symbolically supported, also, by three columns—WISDOM, STRENGTH, and BEAUTY.


In the British and other mysteries, these three pillars represented the great emblematical Triad of Deity, as with us they refer to the three principal officers of the Lodge. It is a fact that, in Britain, the Adytum or Lodge was actually supported by three stones or pillars, which were supposed to convey a regenerating purity to the aspirant, after having endured the ceremony of initiation in all its accustomed formalities. The delivery from between them was termed a new birth. The corresponding pillars of the Hindoo mythology were also known by the names of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, and placed in the East, West, and South, crowned with three human heads. They jointly referred to the Creator, who was said to have planned the Great Work by his infinite Wisdom, executed it by his Strength, and to have adorned it with all its Beauty and usefulness for the benefit of man. These united powers were not overlooked in the mysteries; for we find them represented in the solemn ceremony of initiation by the three presiding Brahmins or Hierophants. The chief Brahmin sat in the East, high exalted on a brilliant throne, clad in a flowing robe of azure, thickly sparkled with golden stars, and bearing in his hand a magical rod; thus symbolizing BRAHMA, the creator of the world. His two compeers, clad in robes of equal magnificence, occupied corresponding situations of distinction. The representative of VISHNU (the setting sun) was placed on an exalted throne in the West; and he who personated SIVA, the meridian sun, occupied a splendid throne in the South.


There were employed in its building three Grand Masters; three thousand and three hundred Masters or Overseers of the work; eighty thousand Fellow-Crafts; and seventy thousand Entered Apprentices, or bearers of burdens. All these were classed and arranged in such manner, by the wisdom of SOLOMON, that neither envy, discord, nor confusion, were suffered to interrupt or disturb the peace and good-fellowship which prevailed among the workmen.

In front of the magnificent porch were placed the two celebrated pillars—one on the left hand and one on the right hand. They are supposed to have been placed there as a memorial to the children of Israel of the happy deliverance of their forefathers from Egyptian bondage, and in commemoration of the miraculous pillars of fire and cloud. The pillar of fire gave light to the Israelites, and facilitated their march; and the cloud proved darkness to PHARAOH and his host, and retarded their pursuit. King SOLOMON, therefore, ordered these pillars to be placed at the entrance of the Temple, as the most conspicuous part, that the children of Israel might have that happy event continually before their eyes, in going to and returning from divine worship.


KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE


THE place chosen for the erection of this magnificent structure was Mount Moriah, a lofty hill, situated in the north-easterly part of the city of Jerusalem, having Mount Zion on the south-west, Mount Acra on the west, and Mount Olives on the east. The summit of this mountain was unequal, and its aides irregular; but it was a favorite object of the Jews to level and extend it. The plan and model of the Temple was in the same form as the Tabernacle of Moses, but was of much larger dimensions.

King SOLOMON commenced the erection of the Temple in the year B.C. 1011, about 480 years after the Exodus and the building of the Tabernacle in the wilderness; and it was finished B.C. 1004, having occupied seven years and six months in the building.

The foundations were laid at a profound depth, and consisted of stones of immense size and great durability. They were closely mortised into the rock, so as to form a secure basis for the substantial erection of the sacred edifice.

The building does not appear to have been so remarkable for its magnitude, as for the magnificence of its ornaments and the value of its materials. The porch was 120 cubits, or 210 feet high, and the rest of the building was in height but 30 cubits, or 52½ feet; so that the form of the whole house was thus:—It was situated due east and west, the holy of holies being to the westward, and the porch or entrance toward the east. The whole length, from east to west, was 70 cubits, or 122½ feet. The breadth, exclusive of the side chambers, was 20 cubits, or 35 feet; the height of the holy place and the holy of holies was 30 cubits, or 52½ feet, and the porch stood at the eastern end, like a lofty steeple, 120 cubits, or 210 feet high. In fact, as LIGHTFOOT remarks, the Temple much resembled a modern church, with this difference, that the steeple, which was placed over the porch, was situated at the east end.


Around the north and south sides and the west end were built chambers of three stories, each story being 5 cubits in height, or 15 cubits, 26 feet 9 inches in all—and these were united to the outside wall of the house.

The windows, which were used for ventillation rather than for light, which was derived from the sacred candlesticks, were placed in the wall of the Temple that was above the roof of the side chambers. But that part which included the holy of holies was without any aperture whatever, to which SOLOMON alludes in the passage, "The LORD said that HE would dwell in the thick darkness."

The Temple was divided, internally, into three parts—the porch, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies; the breadth of all these wag of course the same, namely, 20 cubits, or 35 feet, but they differed in length. The porch was 17 feet 6 inches in length, the sanctuary 70 feet, and the holy of holies 35, or, in the Hebrew measure, 10, 40, and 20 cubits. The entrance from the porch into the sanctuary was through a wide door of olive posts and leaves of fir; but the door between the sanctuary and the holy of holies was composed entirely of olive-wood. These doors were always open, and the aperture closed by a suspended curtain. The partition between the sanctuary and the holy of holies partly consisted of an open network, so that the incense daily offered in the former place might be diffused through the interstices into the latter.


In the sanctuary were placed the golden candlestick, the table of shew-bread, and the altar of incense. The holy of holies contained nothing but the ark of the covenant, which included the tables of the law.

The frame-work of the Temple consisted of massive stone, but it was wainscoted with cedar, which was covered with gold. The boards within the Temple were ornamented with carved work, skillfully representing cherubim, palm-leaves, and flowers. The ceiling was supported by beams of cedar-wood, which, with that used in the wainscoting, was supplied by the workmen of HIRAM, King of Tyre, from the forest of Lebanon. The floor was throughout made of cedar, but boarded over with planks of fir.

The Temple, thus constructed, was surrounded by various courts and high walls, and thus occupied the entire summit of Mount Moriah. The first of the courts was the Court of the Gentiles, beyond which Gentiles were prohibited from passing. Within this, and separated from it by a low wall, was the Court of the Children of Israel, and inside of that, separated from it by another wall, was the Court of the Priests, in which was placed the altar of burnt offerings. From this court there was an ascent of twelve steps to the porch of the Temple, before which stood the two pillars of JACHIN and BOAZ.

For the erection of this magnificent structure, besides the sums annually appropriated by SOLOMON, his father, DAVID, had left one hundred thousand talents of gold and a million talents of silver, equal to nearly four thousand millions of dollars.


The year after the Temple was finished, it was dedicated with those solemn ceremonies which are alluded to in this degree. The dedicatory ceremonies commenced on Friday, the 30th of October, and lasted for fourteen days, terminating on Thursday, the 12th of November, although the people were not dismissed until the following Saturday. Seven days of this festival were devoted to the dedication exclusively, and the remaining seven to the Feast of Tabernacles, which followed.


General Ahiman Rezon, by Daniel Sickels


THE STORY OF THE BOOK OF THOTH

NOW Ahura was the wife of Nefer-ka-ptah, and their child was Merab; this was the name by which he was registered by the scribes in the House of Life. And Nefer-ka-ptah, though he was the son of the King, cared for naught on earth but to read the ancient records, written on papyrus in the House of Life or engraved on stone in the temples; all day and every day he studied the writings of the ancestors.

One day he went into the temple to pray to the gods, but when he saw the inscriptions on the walls he began to read them; and he forgot to pray, he forgot the gods, he forgot the priests, he forgot all that was around him until he heard laughter behind him. He looked round and a priest stood there, and from him came the laughter.

"Why laughest thou at me?" said Nefer-ka-ptah.


"Because thou readest these worthless writings," answered the priest. "If thou wouldest read writings that are worth the reading I can tell thee where the Book of Thoth lies hidden."


Then Nefer-ka-ptah was eager in his questions, and the priest replied, "Thoth wrote the Book with his own hand, and in it is all the magic in the world. If thou readest the first page, thou wilt enchant the sky, the earth, the abyss, the mountains, and the sea; thou wilt understand the language of the birds of the air, and thou wilt know what the creeping things of earth are saying, and thou wilt see the fishes from the darkest depths of the sea. And if thou readest the other page, even though thou wert dead and in the world of ghosts, thou couldest come back to earth in the form thou once hadst. And besides this, thou wilt see the sun shining in the sky with the full moon and the stars, and thou wilt behold the great shapes of the gods."

Then said Nefer-ka-ptah, "By the life of Pharaoh, that Book shall be mine. Tell me whatsoever it is that thou desirest, and I will do it for thee."

"Provide for my funeral," said the priest. "See that I am buried as a rich man, with priests and mourning women, offerings, libations, and incense. Then shall my soul rest in peace in the fields of Aalu. One hundred pieces of silver must be spent upon my burying."


Then Nefer-ka-ptah sent a fleet messenger to fetch the money, and he paid one hundred pieces of silver into the priest's hands. When the priest had taken the silver, he said to Nefer-ka-ptah:


"The Book is at Koptos in the middle of the river.
In the middle of the river is an iron box,
In the iron box is a bronze box,
In the bronze box is a keté-wood box,
In the keté-wood box is an ivory-and-ebony box,
In the ivory-and-ebony box is a silver box,
In the silver box is a gold box,
And in the gold box is the Book of Thoth,
Round about the great iron box are snakes and scorpions and all manner of crawling things, and above all there is a snake which no man can kill. These are set to guard the Book of Thoth."


When the priest had finished speaking, Nefer-ka-ptah ran out of the temple, for his joy was so great that he knew not where he was. He ran quickly to Ahura to tell her about the Book and that he would go to Koptos and find it.

But Ahura was very sorrowful, and said, "Go not on this journey, for trouble and grief await thee in the southern land."

She laid her hand upon Nefer-ka-ptah as though she would hold him back from the sorrow that awaited him. But he would not be restrained, and broke away from her and went to the king his father.


He told the King all that he had learned, and said, "Give me the royal barge, O my father, that I may go to the southern land with my wife Ahura and my son Merab. For the Book of Thoth I must and will have."

So the King gave orders and the royal barge was prepared, and in it Nefer-ka-ptah, Ahura, and Merab sailed up the river to the southern land as far as Koptos. When they arrived at Koptos, the high priest and all the priests of Isis of Koptos came down to the river to welcome Nefer-ka-ptah, sacrificed an ox and a goose, and poured a libation of wine to Isis of Koptos and her son Harpocrates. After this, the priests of Isis and their wives made a great feast for four days in honor of Nefer-ka-ptah and Ahura.

On the morning of the fifth day, Nefer-ka-ptah called to him a priest of Isis, a great magician learned in all the mysteries of the gods. And together they made a little magic box, like the cabin of a boat, and they made men and a great store of tackle, and put the men and the tackle in the magic cabin. Then they uttered a spell over the cabin, and the men breathed and were alive, and began to use the tackle. And Nefer-ka-ptah sank the magic cabin in the river, saying "Workmen, workmen!


Work for me!" And he filled the royal barge with sand and sailed away alone, while Ahura sat on the bank of the river at Koptos, and watched and waited, for she knew that sorrow must come of this journey to the southern land.

The magic men in the magic cabin toiled all night and all day for three nights and three days along the bottom of the river; and when they stopped the royal barge stopped also, and Nefer-ka-ptah knew that he had arrived where the Book lay hidden.

He took the sand out of the royal barge and threw it into the water, and it made a gap in the river, a gap of a schoenus long and a schoenus wide; in the middle of the gap lay the iron box, and beside the box was coiled the great snake that no man can kill, and all around the box on every side to the edge of the walls of water were snakes and scorpions and all manner of crawling things.

Then Nefer-ka-ptah stood up in the royal barge, and across the water he cried to the snakes and scorpions and crawling things; a loud and terrible cry, and the words were words of magic. As soon as his voice was still, the snakes and scorpions and crawling things were still also, for they were enchanted by means of the magical words of Nefer-ka-ptah, and they could not move. Nefer-ka-ptah brought the royal barge to the edge of the gap, and he walked through the snakes and scorpions and crawling things, and they looked at him, but could not move because of the spell that was on them.


And now Nefer-ka-ptah was face to face with the snake that no man could kill, and it reared itself up ready for battle. Nefer-ka-ptah rushed upon it and cut off its head, and at once the head and body came together, each to each, and the snake that no man could kill was alive again, and ready for the fray. Again Nefer-ka-ptah rushed upon it, and so hard did he strike that the head was flung far from the body, but at once the head and body came together again, each to each, and again the snake that no man could kill was alive and ready to fight. Then Nefer-ka-ptah saw that the snake was immortal and could not be slain but must be overcome by subtle means. Again he rushed upon it and cut it in two, and very quickly he put sand on each part, so that when the head and body came together there was sand between them and they could not join, and the snake that no man could kill lay helpless before him.


Then Nefer-ka-ptah went to the great box where it stood in the gap in the middle of the river, and the snakes and scorpions and crawling things watched, but they could not stop him.


He opened the iron box and found a bronze box,
He opened the bronze box and found a keté-wood box,
He opened the keté-wood box and found an ivory-and-ebony box,
He opened the ivory-and-ebony box and found a silver box,
He opened the silver box and found a gold box,
He opened the gold box and found the Book of Thoth.


He opened the Book and read a page, and at once he had enchanted the sky, the earth, the abyss, the mountains, and the sea, and he understood the language of birds, fish, and beasts. He read the second page and he saw the sun shining in the sky, with the full moon and the stars, and he saw the great shapes of the gods themselves; and so strong was the magic that the fishes came up from the darkest depths of the sea. So he knew that what the priest had told him was true.

Then he thought of Ahura waiting for him at Koptos, and he cast a magic spell upon the men that he had made, saying, "Workmen, workmen! Work for me! and take me back to the place from which I came." They toiled day and night till they came to Koptos, and there was Ahura sitting by the river, having eaten nothing and drunk nothing since Nefer-ka-ptah went away. For she sat waiting and watching for the sorrow that was to come upon them.


But when she saw Nefer-ka-ptah returning in the royal-barge, her heart was glad and she rejoiced exceedingly. Nefer-ka-ptah came to her and put the Book of Thoth into her hands and bade her read it. When she read the first page, she enchanted the sky, the earth, the abyss, the mountains, and the sea, and she understood the language of birds, fish, and beasts; and when she read the second page, she saw the sun shining in the sky, with the full moon and the stars, and she saw the great shapes of the gods themselves; and so strong was the magic that the fishes came up from the darkest depths of the sea.

Nefer-ka-ptah now called for a piece of new papyrus and for a cup of beer; and on the papyrus he wrote all the spells that were in the Book of Thoth. Then he took the cup of beer and washed the papyrus in the beer, so that all the ink was washed off and the papyrus became as though it had never been written on. And Nefer-ka-ptah drank the beer, and at once he knew all the spells that had been written on the papyrus, for this is the method of the great magicians.


Then Nefer-ka-ptah and Ahura went to the temple of Isis and gave offerings to Isis and Harpocrates, and made a great feast, and the next day they went on board the royal barge and sailed joyfully away down the river towards the northern land.

But behold, Thoth had discovered the loss of his Book, and Thoth raged like a panther of the south, and he hastened before Ra and told him all, saving, "Nefer-ka-ptah has found my magic box and opened it, and has stolen my Book, even the Book of Thoth; he slew the guards that surrounded it, and the snake that no man can kill lay helpless before him. Avenge me, O Ra, upon Nefer-ka-ptah, son of the King of Egypt."

The majesty of Ra answered and said, "Take him and his wife and his child, and do with them as thou wilt." And now the sorrow for which Ahura watched and waited was about to come upon them, for Thoth took with him a power from Ra to give him his desire upon the stealer of his Book.

As the royal barge sailed smoothly down the river, the little boy Merab ran out from the shade of the awning and leaned over the side watching the water. And the power of Ra drew him, so that he fell into the river and was drowned. When he fell, all the sailors on the royal barge and all the people walking on the river-bank raised a great cry, but they could not save him. Nefer-ka-ptah came out of the cabin and read a magical spell over the water, and the body of Merab came to the surface and they brought it on board the royal barge. Then Nefer-ka-ptah read another spell, and so great was its power that the dead child spoke and told Nefer-ka-ptah all that had happened among the gods, that Thoth was seeking vengeance, and that Ra had granted him his desire upon the stealer of his Book.

Nefer-ka-ptah gave command, and the royal barge returned to Koptos, that Merab might be buried there with the honor due to the son of a prince. When the funeral ceremonies were over, the royal barge sailed down the river toward the northern land. A joyful journey was it no longer, for Merab was dead, and Ahura's heart was heavy on account of the sorrow that was still to come, for the vengeance of Thoth was not yet fulfilled.

They reached the place where Merab had fallen into the water, and Ahura came out from under the shade of the awning, and she leaned over the side of the barge, and the power of Ra drew her so that she fell into the river and was drowned.


When she fell, all the sailors in the royal barge and all the people walking on the river-bank raised a great cry, but they could not save her. Nefer-ka-ptah came out of the cabin and read a magical spell over the water, and the body of Ahura came to the surface, and they brought it on board the royal barge. Then Nefer-ka-ptah read another spell and so great was its power that the dead woman spoke and told Nefer-ka-ptah all that had happened among the gods, that Thoth was still seeking vengeance, and that Ra had granted him his desire upon the stealer of his Book.

Nefer-ka-ptah gave command and the royal barge returned to Koptos, that Ahura might be buried there with the honor due to the daughter of a king. When the funeral ceremonies were over, the royal barge sailed down the river towards the northern land. A sorrowful journey was it now, for Ahura and Merab were dead, and the vengeance of Thoth was not yet fulfilled.

They reached the place where Ahura and Merab had fallen into the water, and Nefer-ka-ptah felt the power of Ra drawing him. Though he struggled against it he knew that it would conquer him. He took a piece of royal linen, fine and strong, and made it into a girdle, and with it he bound the Book of Thoth firmly to his breast, for he was resolved that Thoth should never have his Book again.


Then the power drew him yet more strongly, and he came from under the shade of the awning and threw himself into the river and was drowned. When he fell, all the sailors of the royal barge and all the people walking on the river-bank raised a great cry, but they could not save him. And when they looked for his body they could not find it. So the royal barge sailed down the river till they reached the northern land and came to Memphis, and the chiefs of the royal barge went to the king and told him all that had happened.

The king put on mourning raiment; he and his courtiers, the high priest and all the priests of Memphis, the king's army and the king's household, were clothed in mourning apparel, and they walked in procession to the haven of Memphis to the royal barge. When they came to the haven, they saw the body of Nefer-ka-ptah floating in the water beside the barge, close to the great steering-oars. And this marvel came to pass because of the magical powers of Nefer-ka-ptah; even in death he was a great magician by reason of the spells he had washed off the papyrus and drunk in the beer.


Then they drew him out of the water, and they saw the Book of Thoth bound to his breast with the girdle of royal linen. And the king gave command that they should bury Nefer-ka-ptah with the honor due to the son of a king, and that the Book of Thoth should be buried with him.

Thus was the vengeance of Thoth fulfilled, but the Book remained with Nefer-ka-ptah.


THE END


THE STORY OF THE BOOK OF THOTH

WHAT IS THE KUNDALINI WHEN AWAKENED—WHAT THEN?

The Kundalini, when awakened, is the giver of all power, health, wealth and success. The Kundalini feeds the baby in the mother's womb. She fulfills our every desire. She is the All in All.


"I praise Tripura which is the treasure house of the race.


"The Kundalini, has three angles as well as three circles, and her Bhupura is three-lined. Her Mantra is three syllables, and she has three aspects. The Kundalini energy is also threefold in order that she may create the three Gods (Brahma, the Creator, or air; Vishnu, the Preserver, or water: Rudra, the Destroyer, or fire). Since she is triple everywhere, she is Tripura."


"O Mother of the Universe, those who praise you by the words, Mother, All in All, and Maya, will obtain all.


"There is nothing which can not be obtained on earth or in the Heavens, by Thy Grace."


This is as it should be, as the Kundalini is Power of Powers, Light of Lights, and All in All.


The Kundalini is Divine static and dynamic energy. The static energy (Kundalini), is sleeping at the Muladhara (Root Chakra); the dynamic energy of the Kundalini is all over the body as Prana, Apana, Samana, Vyana, and Udana. These five Vital breaths, or life forces, keep the body together. The duties of the five Pranas are as follows: Prana remains in the upper part of the body, and always moves upward; the Apana resides in the lower part of the body, or abdomen, and always flows downward; the Samana stays in the first section of the torso, digesting and distributing the food substances; the Vyana resides in the heart, and from there moves all over the body, its duty being the circulation of the blood; the Udana carries the Soul upward when the body dies.

These five Pranas stay in the grosser body. They are also in the finer or subtle body—the five finer breaths corresponding to the five grosser Pranas above described.

The Pranayama Yoga, the Mudra Yoga, and Dharana Yoga, are all for the control of the five Pranas and mind. Mind without Prana is like a bird without wings. The practice of the Mudras is to control the dynamic energy of the Kundalini, namely, Prana, Apana, etc. The practice of Pranayama is also to control the Prana, Apana, etc.—the dynamic energy of the Kundalini, and with it awaken the static energy of the Kundalini, which is sleeping at the Muladhara, or

root Chakra. When the five Pranas are controlled or made to stop at the desired place, the Muladhara Chakra, or at the door of the Sushumana, it will work like a spark to the static energy of the Kundalini.


"When Prana and Apana are mixed, it will naturally cause heat in the body; then the body becomes light and powerful. This extreme heat when felt by the Kundalini, causes her to awaken from sleep. Then she goes into the Sushumana." (From H. Y. P.)

The duty of the Yogin is to gather together or control the five Pranas—the life force of the Kundalini—that the dynamic energy of the Kundalini may be used to awaken the static energy of it, as one Kundalini energy will move the other energy.

When the Kundalini awakens or moves, what then remains? What will become of the Kundalini? She will go to the Six Chakras and also remain at her place. As steam is converted from water by heat and again returns to it, so rises the dynamic energy of the Kundalini, which goes up to the different Chakras and returns again and again.. While she will reach to the Sahasrara, still she will be at her home at the Muladhara Chakra.

The Kundalini power can only be known by Master Yogins, but some times even ordinary Yogins can see it, however not as clearly, as long as the inner eye is not open. When the Yogin has opened the inner eye, then he sees the different Chakras and the energy of the Kundalini, which is Life of Life, and Light of Lights.

The following Masterly and Scientific explanation of the Kundalini is by Prof. P. Mukhyopadhyaya, and was written for Arthur Avalon and brought out in his book.

"The Serpent Power," pp. 302-313.

I here acknowledge my thanks for the use of this explanation, and I wish that every student of Yoga would read "The Serpent Power." R. S. Gherwal.


"When you say that Kundali Shakti is the primordial Shakti at rest, I am led to think of an analogy (and it may be more than an analogy) in modern science. Cosmic energy in its physical aspect may be considered either as static or as dynamic, the former being a condition of equilibrium, the latter a condition of motion or change of relative position. Thus a material thing apparently at rest (there being no absolute rest except in pure Consciousness or Chit) should be regarded as energy or Shakti equilibrated, the. various elements of it holding one another in check (or, as the mathematicians will say, the algebraic sum of the forces being zero). Of course, in any given case the equilibrium is relative rather than absolute. The important thing to note is this polarisation of Shakti into two forms—static and dynamic.

"In the tissues of a living body, again, the operative energy (whatever the nature of that may be, whether we believe in a special 'vital force' or not) polarises itself into two similar forms—anabolic and katabolic—one tending to change and the other to conserve the tissues, the actual condition of the tissues being simply the resultant of these two coexistent or concurrent activities.

"In the mind or experience also this polarisation or polarity is patent to reflection. In my own writings * I have constantly urged: this polarity between pure Chit and the stress which is involved in it: there is a stress or Shakti developing the mind through an infinity of forms and changes; but all these forms and changes are known as involved in the pure and unbounded ether of awareness (Chidakasha). This analysis therefore exhibits the primordial Shakti in the same two polar forms as before—static and dynamic—and here the polarity is most fundamental and approaches absoluteness.


"Lastly, let us consider for one moment the atom of modern science. The chemical atom has ceased to be an atom (indivisible unit of matter). We have instead the electron theory. According to this, the so-called atom is a miniature universe very much like our own solar system. At the centre of this atomic system we have a charge of positive electricity round which a cloud of negative .charges (called electrons) is supposed to revolve, just as myriads of planets and smaller bodies revolve round the sun. The positive and the negative charges hold each other in check, so that the atom is a condition of equilibrated energy, and does not therefore ordinarily break up, though it may possibly break up and set free its equilibrated store of energy, as probably it does in the emanations of the radium. What do we notice here? The same polarity of Shakti into a static and a dynamic partner—viz., the positive charge at rest at the centre, and the negative charges in motion round about the centre; a. most suggestive analogy or illustration, perhaps, of the cosmic fact. The illustration may be carried into other domains of science. and philosophy, but I may as well forbear going into details. For the present we may,. I think, draw this important conclusion:

"Shakti, as manifesting itself in the universe, divides itself into two polar aspects—static and dynamic—which implies that you cannot have it in a dynamic form without at the same time having it in a corresponding static form, much like the poles of a magnet. In any given sphere of activity of force we must have, according to this cosmic principle, a static background—Shakti at rest or 'coiled', as the Tantras say.


"Before I proceed, let me point out what I conceive to be the fundamental significance of our Tantric and Pauranic Kali. This. figure or Murti is both real and symbolic, as indeed every Murti in the so-called Hindu mythology is. Now, the Divine Mother Kali is a symbol of the cosmic truth just explained. Sadashiva, on whose breast She dances, nude and dark, is the static background of pure Chit, white and inert (Shavarupa), because pure Chit is in itself Svaprakasha (self manifest) and Nishkriya (actionless). At the same time, apart from and beyond Consciousness there can be nothing—no power or Shakti —hence the Divine Mother stands on the bosom of the Divine Father. The Mother Herself is all activity and Gunamayi (in Her aspect as Prakriti composed of the Gunas). Her nakedness means that, though She encompasses all, there is nothing to encompass Herself; her darkness means that She is inscrutable, Avang-manasagochara (beyond the reach of thought and speech). Of course, this is no partition of reality into two (there lies the imperfection of the Sangkhya doctrine of Purusha and Prakriti, which is otherwise right), but merely polarisation in our experience of an indivisible fact which is the primordial (Adya) Shakti itself. Thus Chit is also Shakti. Shiva is Shakti and Shakti is Shiva, as the Tantras say. It is Gunashraya (support of Gunas) as well as Gunamaya (whose substance is Gunas); Nirguna (attributeless) as well as Saguna (with attribute), as said in a well-known passage of the Chandi.


"Your suggestive hint 2 makes the nature of the Kundali Shakti rather clear to me. You are quite right, perhaps, in saying that the cosmic Shakti is the Samashti (collectivity) in relation to which the Kundali in the bodies is only the Vyashti (individual): it is an illustration, a reproduction on a miniature scale, a microcosmic plan, of the whole. The law or principle of the whole—that of macrocosmic Shakti—should therefore be found in the Kundali. That law we have seen to be the law of polarisation into static-dynamic or potential-kinetic aspects. In the living body, therefore, there must be such polarisation. Now, the Kundali coiled three times and a half at the Muladhara is the indispensable and unfailing static background of the dynamic Shakti operative in the whole body, carrying on processes and working out changes. The body, therefore, may be compared to a magnet with two poles. The Muladhara is the static pole in relation to the rest of the body, which is dynamic; the working the body necessarily presupposes and finds such a static support, hence perhaps 3 the name Muladhara, the fundamental support. In one sense, the static Shakti at the Muladhara is necessarily coexistent with the creating and evolving Shakti of the body, because the dynamic aspect or pole can never be without its static counterpart. In another sense, it is the Shakti left over (you have yourself pointed this out, and the italics are yours), after the Prithivi—the last of the Bhutas—has been created, a magazine of power to be drawn upon and utilized for further activity, if there should arise any need for such. Taking the two senses together (yours as well as mine), Shakti at the Muladhara is both coexistent with every act of creation or manifestation and is the residual effect of such act—both cause and effect, in fact—an idea which, deeply looked into, shows no real contradiction. There is, in fact, what the physicist will describe as a cycle or circuit in action. Let us take the impregnated ovum—the earliest embryological stage of the living body.


In it the Kundali Shakti is already presented in its two polar aspects: the ovum, which the mother-element represents, one pole (possibly the static), and the spermatozoon, which is the father-element, represents the other (possibly the dynamic). 4 From their fusion proceed those processes which the biologist calls differentiation and integration; but in all this process of creation the cycle can be fairly easily traced. Shakti flows out of the germinal cell (fertilised ovum), seizes upon foreign matter, and assimilates it and thereby grows in bulk; divides and subdivides itself, and then again co-ordinates all its divided parts into one organic whole. Now in all this we have the cycle. Seizing upon foreign matter is an outwardly directed activity, assimilation is an inwardly directed activity or return current; cell division and multiplication is an outwardly directed operation, co-ordination is inwardly directed; 5 and so on. The force in the germ-cell is overflowing, but also continuously it is flowing back into itself, the two operations presupposing and sustaining each other, as in every circuit.

The given stock of force in the germ-cell, which is static so long as the fusion of the male and female elements does not take place in the womb, is the necessary starting-point of all creative activity; it is the primordial cause, therefore, in relation to the body—primordial as well as constantly given, unceasing. On the other hand, the reaction of every creative action, the return current or flowing back of every unfolding over flow, constantly renews this starting force, changes it without changing its general condition of relative equilibrium (and this is quite possible, as in the case of any material system); the force in the germ-cell may therefore be also regarded as a perpetual effect, something left over and set against the working forces of the body. Many apparently inconsistent ideas enter into this conception, and they have to be reconciled.


"1. We start with a force in the germ-cell which is statical at first (though, like a dicotyledon seed, or even a modern atom, it involves within itself both a statical and a dynamical pole; otherwise, from pure rest, involving no possibility of motion, no motion could ever arise). Let this be the Kundali coiled.


"2. Then there is creative impulse arising out of it; this is motion out of rest. By this, the Kundali becomes partly static and partly dynamic, or ejects, so to say, a dynamic pole out of it in order to evolve the body, but remaining a static pole or background itself all along. In no part of the process has the Kundali really uncoiled itself altogether, or even curtailed its three coils and a half. Without this Muladhara Shakti remaining intact no evolution could be possible at all. It is the hinge upon which everything else turns.


"3. Each creative act again reacts on the Muladhara Shakti, so that such reaction, without disturbing the relative rest of the coiled Shakti, changes its volume or intensity, but does not curtail or add to the number of coils. For instance, every natural act of respiration reacts on the coiled Shakti at the Muladhara, but it does not commonly make much difference. But Pranayama powerfully reacts on it, so much so that it awakes the dormant power and sends it piercing through the centres. Now, the common description that the Kundali uncoils Herself then and goes up the Sushumna, leaving the Muladhara, should, I think, be admitted with caution. That static background can never be absolutely dispensed with. As you have yourself rightly observed, 'Shakti can never be depleted, but this is how to look at it'. Precisely; the Kundali, when powerfully worked upon by Yoga, sends forth an emanation or ejection in the likeness of Her own self (like the 'ethereal double' of the Theosophists and Spiritualists) which pierces through the various centres until it becomes blended, as you point out, with the Mahakundali of Shiva at the highest or seventh centre. Thus, while this 'ethereal double' or, self-ejection of the coiled power at the Muladhara ascends the Sushumna, the coiled power itself does not and need not stir from its place. It is like a spark given from an over saturated 6 electro-magnetic machine; or, rather, it is like the emanations of radium which do not sensibly detract from the energy contained in it. This last, perhaps, is the closest physical parallel of the case that we are trying to understand. As a well-known passage in the Upanishad has it, 'The whole (Purna) is subtracted from the whole, and yet the whole remains.' I think our present case comes very near to this. The Kundali at the Muladhara is the whole primordial Shakti in monad or germ or latency: that is why it is coiled. The Kundali that mounts up the Nadi is also the whole Shakti in a specially dynamic form—an eject likeness of the Eternal Serpent. The result of the last fusion (there are successive fusions in the various centres also) in the Sahasrara is also the whole, or Purna. This is how I look at it. In this conception the permanent static background is not really depleted, much less is it dispensed with.


"4. When again I say that the volume or intensity of the coiled power can be affected (though not its configuration and relative equilibrium), I do not mean to throw up the principle of conservation of energy in relation to the Kundali, which is the embodiment of all energy. It is merely the conversion of static (potential) energy into dynamic (kinetic) energy in part, the sum remaining constant. As we have to deal with infinities here, an exact physical rendering of this principle is not to be expected. The Yogi therefore simply 'awakens', and never creates Shakti. By the way, the germ-cell which evolves the body does not, according to modern biology, cease to be a germ-cell in any stage of the complicated process. The original germ-cell splits up into two: one half gradually develops itself into the body of a plant or animal—this is the somatic cell; the other half remains encased within the body practically unchanged, and is transmitted in the process of reproduction to the offspring—that is, the germ-plasm. Now, this germ-plasm is unbroken through the whole line of propagation. This is Weismann's doctrine of 'continuity of the germ-plasm,' which has been widely accepted, though it is but an hypothesis."


In a subsequent postscript the Professor wrote:


"1. Shakti being either static or dynamic, every dynamic form necessarily presupposes a static background. A purely dynamic activity (which is motion in its physical aspect) is impossible without a static support or ground (Adhara). Hence the philosophical doctrine of absolute motion or change, as taught by old Heraclitus and the Buddhists and by modern Bergson, is wrong; it is based neither upon correct logic nor upon clear intuition. The constitution of an atom reveals the static-dynamic polarisation of Shakti; other and more complex forms of existence also do the same. In the living body this necessary static background is Muladhara, where Shakti is Kundali coiled. All the functional activity of the body, starting from the development of the germ-cell, is correlated to, and sustained by the Shakti concentrated at, the Muladhara. Cosmic creation, too, ending with the evolution of Prithivi Tattva (it is, however, an unending process in a different sense, and there perhaps Henry Bergson, who claims that the creative impulse is ever original and resourceful, is right), also presupposes a cosmic static background (over and above Chidakasha-ether of Consciousness), which is the Mahakundali Shakti in the Chinmayadeha (body of Consciousness) of Parameshvara or Parameshvari (the Supreme Lord in male an female aspect). In the earliest stage of creation,. when the world arises only as a mist in Divine Consciousness, it requires, as the principle or pole of Tat (That), the correlate principle or pole of Aham (I); in the development of the former, the latter serves as the static background. In our own experiences, too, 'Apperception' or consciousness of self is the sustaining background—a string, so to say, which holds together all the loose beads of our elements of feeling. The sustaining ground or Adhara, as the seat of static force, therefore is found, in one form or other, in every phase and stage of creative evolution. The absolute or ultimate form is, of course, Chit-Shakti (Consciousness as power) itself, the unfailing light of awareness about which our Gayatri (Mantra) says: 'Which sustains and impels all the activities of Buddhi.' This fact is symbolised by the Kali-murti: not a mere symbol, however.


"2. My remarks about the rising or awakening of the Serpent Power at the Muladhara have been, perhaps, almost of the nature of a paradox. The coiled power, though awakened, uncoiled, and rising, never really stirs from its place; only a sort of 'ethereal double' or 'eject' is unloosed and sent up through the system of centers. Now, in plain language, this ethereal double or eject means the dynamic equivalent of the static power concentrated at the Mula, or root. Whenever, by Pranayama of Bijamantra, or any other suitable means, the Muladhara becomes, like an electro-magnetic machine, oversaturated (though the Kundali Shakti at the Mula is infinite and exhaustless, yet the capacity of a given finite organism to contain it in a static form is limited, and therefore there may be oversaturation), a dynamic or operative equivalent of the static power is set up, possibly by a law similar to Nature's law of induction, by which the static power itself is not depleted or rendered other than static. It is not that static energy at the Mula wholly passes over into a dynamic form—the coiled Kundali leaving the Mula, thus making it a void; that cannot be, and, were it so, all dynamic operation in the body would cease directly for want of a background. The coiled power remains coiled or static, and yet something apparently passes out of the Mula—viz., the dynamic equivalent. This paradox can perhaps be explained in two ways:


"(a) One explanation was suggested in my main letter. The potential Kundali Shakti becomes partly converted into kinetic Shakti, and yet, since Shakti, even as given in the Mula-center, is an infinitude, it is not depleted; the potential store always remains unexhausted. I referred to a passage in the Upanishad about Purna. In this case the dynamic equivalent is a partial conversion of one mode of energy into another. In Laya-Yoga (here described) it is ordinarily so. When, however, the infinite potential becomes an infinite kinetic—when, that is to say, the coiled power at the Mula becomes absolutely uncoiled—we have necessarily the dissolution of the three bodies (Sthula, Linga, and Karana—gross, subtle, and causal), and consequently Videhamukti (bodiless liberation), because the static background in relation to a particular form of existence has now wholly given way, according to our hypothesis. But Mahakundali remains; hence individual Mukti (liberation) need not mean dissolution of Samsara (transmigrating worlds) itself. Commonly, however, as the Tantra says, 'Pitva pitva punah pitva,' etc.


"(b) The other explanation is suggested by the law of induction. Take an electromagnetic machine: 'if a suitable substance be placed near it, will induce in it an equivalent and opposite kind of electro-magnetism without loosing its own stock of energy. In conduction, energy flows over into another thing, so that the source loses and the other thing gains what it has lost, and its gain is similar in kind to the loss. Not so induction. There the source does not lose, and the induced energy is equivalent and opposite in kind to the inducing energy. Thus a positive charge will induce an equivalent negative charge in a neighbouring object. Now, shall we suppose that the Muladhara, when it becomes over-saturated, induces in the neighbouring centre (say, Svadhishthana) a dynamic (not static) equivalent? 9 Is this what the rise of the Serpent Power really means? The explanation, I am tempted to think, is not perhaps altogether fantastic."


Kundalini, The Mother of the Universe, by Rishi Singh Gherwal

THE CABALA IN RELATION TO JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY

Judaism.--It must be acknowledged that the Cabala intended to oppose philosophy and to intensify religion. But by introducing heathenish ideas it grafted on Judaism a conception of the world which was foreign to it and produced the most pernicious results. In place of the monotheistic biblical idea of God, according to which God is the creator, preserver and ruler of the world, the confused, pantheistically colored heathenish doctrine of emanation was substituted. The belief in the unity of God was replaced by the decade of the ten Sephiroth which were considered as divine substances. By no longer addressing prayers directly to god, but to the Sephiroth, a real Sephiroth-cult originated. The legal discussions of the Talmud were of no account; the Cabalists despised the Talmud, yea, they considered it as a canker of Judaism, which must be cut out if Judaism were to recover. According to the Zohar, I, 27b; III, 275a; 279b, the Talmud is only a bondmaid, but the Cabala a controlling mistress.

The Cabalists compared the Talmud to a hard, unfruitful rock, which when smitten yields only scanty drops that in the end become a cause of controversy; whereas the study of the Cabala is like a fresh gushing spring, which one needs only to address to cause it to pour out its refreshing contents.


And as the Cabalists treated the Talmud, they likewise treated philosophy, which defined religious ideas and vindicated religious precepts before the forum of reason. Most Cabalists opposed philosophy. She was the Hagar that must be driven from the house of Abraham, whereas the Cabala was the Sarah, the real mistress. At the time of the Messiah the mistress will rule over the bondmaid.

But the study of the Bible was also neglected, Scripture was no longer studied for its own sake, but for the sake of finding the so-called higher sense by means of mystical hermeneutical rules.

Even the rituals were variously changed and recast. The putting on of the phylacteries and prayer-mantle (talîth) was accompanied by the recitation of cabalistic formulas and sentences; special prayers were also addressed to the Sephiroth. Connected with all this was an extravagant, intoxicating superstition. To enable the soul to connect itself with the realm of light and its spirits, or to be transplanted after death into its heavenly abode, one underwent all manner of austere ascetical exercises. With the mysterious name of God they believed themselves enabled to heal the sick, to deliver demoniacs and to extinguish conflagrations. By application of the right formulas of prayer, man was to have power and influence on both the kingdoms of light and darkness. When the Cabalist prays, God shakes his head, changes at once his decrees, and abolishes heavy judgments. The magical names of God can even deliver the condemned and free them from their torments in their place of punishment. In this respect we even meet with the doctrine of the Catholic mass for the souls. 2 The Book of Psalms with its songs and prayers was especially considered as a means of producing all manner of miracles and magic, as may be seen from the Sepher Shimmush Thehillim (literally, "the Book of the Cabalistic Application of the Psalms"), a fragment of the practical Cabala, translated by Gottfried Selig, Berlin, 1788.


This sketch of Professor Wünsche is by no means exaggerated. 3 Mutatis mutandis we find the cabalistic notions among the Chasidim, a sect founded in 1740 by a certain Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer Baalshem, 4 also called Besht. Baal-Shem made his public appearance about 1740 in Tlusti, in the district of Czartkow, from whence he subsequently removed to Medziboze, in Podolia. The miraculous cures and prophecies attracted attention in large circles; his mode of life, consisting of contemplation, study of the Zohar and frequent washings in rivers, soon spread a halo around him. Added to this were the many miraculous reports circulated by his disciples; for instance, that his father had been visited by the prophet Elijah to predict his birth, and that his mother was a hundred years old when she was delivered of him; that, when a youth, he had victoriously struggled with evil spirits, etc.--all of which may be found in the Book Shibche ha-Besht, published in 1815 by the grandson of Baal-Shem, Rabbi Bar Linz. Baal-Shem 5 and his successors received the name Tsaddik, "Saint," and his fame attracted multitudes of Jews from all parts of Poland, who submitted themselves to his guidance. As long as he lived, the sect formed one great whole, of which he was the head. After his death, which took place in 1780, it was divided into separate congregations, each of which had its own Rabbi or Tsaddik or Saint, unreserved devotion to whom is the most important of all the principles of the sect. In a word, before Pius IX was declared infallible, the Chasidim 6 already had their infallible popes, whose number is still very large in Poland, Wallachia, Moldavia, Galicia, and Palestine. Of these popes of the Chasidim, a modern Jewish writer, the late David Cassel (died 1893), says: "To the disgrace of Judaism and modern culture the Tsaddikim still go on with their disgraceful business, and are thus the most essential hindrances to the dissemination of literary progress in Galicia and Russia. There are still thousands who behold in the Tsaddik the worker of miracles, the prophet, one who is in close communion with God and angels, and who present him with rich gifts and promulgate the wonders which they have seen. Covetousness on the one hand and spiritual narrowness on the other are the channels through which the evil is fed anew."


Christianity.--As soon as the Cabala became better known, Christians betook themselves to its study and paid it the greatest attention because of the supposed agreement of its teachings with the dogmas of the Christian church. It was thought that the Cabala was the connecting link between Judaism and Christianity. The dogmas of the Trinity, of the Messiah as the Son of God and his atonement, were the salient points which especially attracted attention. The first to be drawn to the Cabala was Raymond Lully, the "Doctor Illuminatus" (1236-1315). He regarded the Cabala as a divine science and as a genuine revelation whose light is revealed to a rational soul.

The progress of Christianity towards the Cabala was greatly helped by the conversion of a large number of Jews to Christianity, "in which they recognized a closer relation to their gnostic views, and also by the Christians perceiving that gnosticism could become a powerful instrument for the conversion of the Jews." Among the converted Jews we notice Paulus de Heredia of Aragon (about 1480), author of Iggeret ha-Sodot or Epistola Secretorum, treating of the divinity, death, and resurrection of the Messiah, which has been ascribed to a certain Nechunjah ben-ha-Kanah, who lived towards the end of the second Temple. Another convert was Paul Ricci, 7 of the sixteenth century, the friend of Erasmus, and physician to the Emperor Maximilian I; Julius Conrad Otto, author of the "Unveiled Secrets," consisting of extracts from the Talmud and the Zohar, to prove the validity of the Christian doctrine (Nuremberg, 1805); John Stephen Rittengel, grandson of the celebrated Isaac Abravanel, the translator of the Book Jezirah into Latin (Amsterdam, 1642). Among Christians we may mention Count John Pico di Mirandola (born in 1463), author of LXXII conclusiones cabbalisticae, Rome, 1486; more especially John Reuchlin (Capnio), 1455-1522. Reuchlin, the first German scholar who studied the Cabala, wrote two cabalistic treaties, entitled De Verbo Mirifico (Basel, 1494), and De Arte cabbalistica (Hagenau, 1516). 8


The first treatise is written in the form of a dialogue between an Epicurean philosopher named Sidonius, a Jew named Baruch, and the author, who is introduced by the Greek name Capnio. Capnio would have it that the doctrine of the Trinity is to be found in the first verse of Genesis. He submits, if the Hebrew word bra (bara), which is translated "created," be examined, and if each of the three letters composing this word be taken as the initial of a separate word, we obtain the expression ben, ruach, ab, i.e., Son, Spirit, Father. Upon the same principle we find the two persons of the Trinity in the word abn (eben), "stone," occurring in Ps. cxviii. 22--"the stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner," by dividing the three letters composing the word abn into ab ben, i.e., Father, Son.

The second treatise is also in the form of a dialogue between a Mohammedan, a Pythagorean philosopher and a Jew. The dialogue is held at Frankfort where the Jew lives to whom the others come to be initiated into the mysteries of the Cabala. The whole is a more matured exposition and elaboration of the ideas hinted at in the first treatise.

How the truths of Christianity can be derived from the Talmud and the Cabala, the Franciscan Pietro Galatino endeavored to prove in his treatise De Arcanis Catholicae Veritatis contra obstinatissimam Judaecorum nostrae tempestatis perfidiam (Ortona di Mare, 1518).


Much as Lully, Mirandola, Reuchlin, and others had already done to acquaint the Christian world with the secrets of the Cabala, none of these scholars had given translations of any portions of the Zohar. To this task Knorr Baron von Rosenroth betook himself by publishing the celebrated work Kabbala Denudata ("the Cabala Unveiled"), in two large volumes, the first of which was printed in Sulzbach, 1677-78, the second at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1864, giving a Latin translation of the Introduction to and the following portion of the Sohar: the Book of Mysteries; the Great Assembly; the Small Assembly; 9 Joseph Gikatilla's Gate of Light (shaar orah); Vital's Doctrine of Metempsychosis (hagilgulim), and the Tree of Life (etz chayim); Cordovero's Garden of Pomegranates (pardes rim-monim); Abraham Herera's Gate of Heaven (sha-ar ha shamayim); Naphtali ben Jacob's Valley of the King (emeq ha bacha); Naphtali Cohen's Vision of the Priest (maré Kohen) etc., etc., with elaborate annotations, glossaries and indices. Knorr von Rosenroth has also collected all the passages of the New Testament which contain similar doctrines to those propounded by the Cabala. In spite of its many drawbacks 10 the work has been made use of by later scholars, especially by Chr. Schöttgen in his Horae hebraicae et talmudicae (Dresden, 1733) and Theologia Judacorum de Messia (ibid., 1742.)


The powerful preponderance of the religious and ecclesiastical interests, as well as those of practical politics which became perceptible in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, giving to the mind a positive impulse, and to the studies a substantial foundation, arrested the further development of the Cabala; and thus it came about that in the course of time the zeal for cabalistic studies among Christians has cooled. It has become generally understood that the Cabala and Christianity are two different things. The idea of God according to the writings of the Old and New Testaments is entirely different. The same is the case with the notion of creation. When the first triad of the Sephiroth (Crown, Wisdom and Intelligence) is referred to the three persons of the Deity, their inner immanent relation is not thereby fully expressed, as Christianity teaches it. The three Sephiroth only represent three potencies of God or three forms of his emanation, the other Sephiroth are also such divine powers and forms. One can therefore rightly say that the Cabala teaches not the Trinity, but the Ten-Unity of God. Also the other characteristics, when e.g. the Zohar ascribes to God three heads; or when it speaks of a God-Father (abba) of a God-Mother (imma) and of a God-Son; or when we are told (Zohar, III, 262a; comp. 67a) that "there are two, and one is connected with them, and they are three; but in being three, they are one," this does not coincide in the least with the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. 11


In one codex of the Zohar we read on the words "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts" (Is. vi. 3): "the first 'holy' refers to the Holy Father; the second to the Holy Son; and the third to the Holy Ghost"; but this passage is now omitted from the present recensions of the Zohar, and has been regarded by some Jewish writers as an interpolation. 12

As to the doctrine of Christ, the God incarnate--it cannot be paralleled with the confused doctrine of Adam Kadmon, the primordial man. According to the Christian notion the reconciliation is effected only through Christ, the Son of God; according to the Cabala man can redeem himself by means of a strict observance of the law, by asceticism and other means whereby he influences God and the world of light in a mystical manner. For the benefit of the reader we give the following passages which speak of the atonement of the Messiah for the sins of people, passages which are given as the explanation of the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah. "When the righteous are visited with sufferings and afflictions to atone for the sins of the world, is that they might atone for all the sins of this generation. How is this proved? By all the members of the body. When all members suffer, one member is afflicted in order that all may recover. And which of them? The arm. The arm is beaten, the blood is taken from it, and then the recovery of all the members of the body is secured. So it is with the children of the world; they are members of one another. When the Holy One, blessed be he, wishes the recovery of the world, he afflicts one righteous from their midst, and for his sake all are healed. How is this shown? It is written--'He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities. . . .and with his stripes we are healed' (Is. iii. 5)." Zohar, III, 218a.


To the same effect is the following passage:


"Those souls which tarry in the nether garden of Eden hover about the world, and when they see suffering or patient martyrs and those who suffer for the unity of God, they return and mention it to the Messiah. When they tell the Messiah of the afflictions of Israel in exile, and that the sinners among them do not reflect in order to know their Lord, he raises his voice and weeps because of those sinners, as it is written, 'he is wounded for our transgressions' (Is. liii. 5). Whereupon those souls return and take their place. In the garden of Eden there is one place which is called the palace of the sick. The Messiah goes into this palace and invokes all the sufferings, pain and afflictions of Israel to come upon him, and they all come upon him. Now if he did not remove them thus and take them upon himself, no man could endure the sufferings of Israel, due as punishment for transgressing the Law; as it is written--'Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows,' etc. (Is. liii, 4 with Rom. xii. 3, 4) . When the children of Israel were in the Holy Land they removed all those sufferings and afflictions from the world by their prayers and sacrifices, but now the Messiah removes them from the world." (Zohar, II, 212b). With reference to these passages 13 which speak of the atonement of the Messiah for the sins of the people, which are given in the Zohar as the explanation of the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah, Professor Dalman 14 remarks that the Jews reject and object to cabalistic statements as something foreign to genuine Judaism. The theosophic speculations of the Cabala are at least just as Jewish as the religious philosophical statements of Bachja or Maimonides; yes, it seems to us that the God of revelation and of scripture is more honestly retained in the former than in the latter, where he becomes a mathematical One without attribute and thereby may satisfy a superficial reason, but leaves the heart empty. That these Jewish thinkers, influenced by Aristotle, had no inclination to find in Is. liii an expiating mediator, is only too inexplicable. He, who by his own strength can soar into the sphere of "intelligences" and thus bring his soul to immortality, needs no mediator. But we are concerned here not with a philosophical or theosophical thought-complex, but the simple question whether the prophet speaks in Is. liii of a suffering mediator of salvation. The answer of the Cabalists at any rate agrees with the testimony of many of them.


What are we to think of the Cabala? That there is a relationship between it and neo-Platonism is obvious. Erich Bischoff 15 thinks that the Cabala represents a peculiar monism, which in some degree has influenced modern philosophy. In ethical respects it contains many fruitful and sublime thoughts, often indeed in fanciful wording. But as magic it has been of great influence on all kinds of superstitions and even on occultistic tendencies. It offers a highly interesting object of study whose closer investigation is rendered more difficult on account of the abstruse manner of representation and the many magic and mystic accessories. But that which is valuable is sufficient to insure for it a lasting interest.


The Cabala, by Bernhard Pick

THE TRIAD. 3.

Photius observes that the Triad is the first odd number in energy, is the first perfect number, and is a middle and analogy.

The Pythagoreans referred it to Physiology; it is the cause of all that has the triple dimension.

It is also the cause of good counsel, intelligence, and knowledge, and is a Mistress of Music, mistress also of Geometry, possesses authority in whatever pertains to Astronomy and the nature and knowledge of the heavenly bodies, connects and leads them into effects.

Every virtue also is suspended from it, and proceeds from it.

In Mythology it is referred by Nicomachus to:


1. Saturn, Time, past, present, and future. 2. Latona. 3. The Horn of Amalthea, the nurse of Jupiter. 4. Polyhymnia, among the Muses.

Number being more increased by multiplication than it is by addition, the number 3 is, properly speaking, the first number, as neither the Dyad nor Monad are so increased.

It is a "Middle and Analogy," because all comparisons consist of three terms, at least; and analogies were called by the ancients "middles."

It was considered the Mistress of Geometry because the triangle is the principal of Figures.

With. regard to the Heavenly bodies, the number Three is important; there are 3 quaternions of the celestial signs, the fixed, the movable, and the common.

In every Zodiacal sign also there are 3 faces, and 3 decans, and 3 Lords of their Triplicity; and among the planets there are 3 Fortunes and 3 Infortunes; according to the Chaldeans also, there are 3 Ethereal words prior to the sphere of our Fixed Stars.


On account of the perfection of the Triad, oracles were delivered from a Tripod, as is related of the Oracle at Delphi.

With regard to Music, 3 is said to be Mistress, because Harmony contains 3 symphonies, the Diapason, the Diapente, and the Diatessaron.

Ezekiel xiv. v. 14 mentions 3 men who saw a creation, destruction, and a restoration; Noah of the whole world, Daniel of the Jewish world Jerusalem, and Job of his. personal world.

Note the Hindoo Trinity of Brahma, who consists of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; Creator, Preserver, and Changer: in India each has still a special sect of worshippers, who mark themselves with particular emblems; the Vaishnavas are much the most numerous.

The living were of old called "the 3 times blessed" (the dead 4 times blessed).

There were Three cities of Refuge on the East side of the Jordan: Bezer, Ramoth Gilead, and Gozan; and Three on the West: Hebron, Shechem, and Kedesh Naphtali.


Three Fates: Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos.


   „    Furies: Tisiphone, Alecto, Megæra.

   „    Graces: Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia, says Hesiod.

   „    Judges of Hades: Minos, Æacus, Rhadamanthus.

   „    Horæ: Hesiod says they were Eunomia (Order), Dike (Justice), Eirene (Peace).


Jupiter's thunder is "triformis." Hecate is always called "triple."

Neptune's spear is a trident, and so has Siva the Trisula.

Pluto's dog Cerberus had 3 heads.

There were Three founders of the Roman Empire: Romulus, B.C. 753, Camillus, B.C. 389, expelled the Gauls; and Caius Marius, B.C. 102, who overthrew the hordes of Cambrians and Teutons.

The Jewish Rabbis say that the Sword of Death has 3 drops of Gall, one drops in the mouth and the man dies, from the second comes the pallor of death, and the third turns the carcase to dust. See Purchas, "The Pilgrimage," 1613.

A letter Yod within an equilateral triangle was a symbol of the ineffable name Jehovah and was so used by the Jews. The moderns have pointed out that this form suggests the idea that they knew something of a Triune God. Other monograms of Jehovah were also triple; thus 3 rays, and the Shin, and three yods in a triangle.

Under the number 3 also we may in passing mention the Royal Arch sign, the "Triple Tau," three T's united: the manner of its explanation, and the ideas which it represents, are not fit matters for description in his work. Note also 3 stones of the arch, 3 Principals and 3 Sojourners; 3 Veils; and in the Craft Lodges, 3 officers, 3 degrees, 3 perambulations.

In the Roman Cultus, the number 3 is of constant occurrence, as for example see Virgil, Eclogue 8, The Pharmaceutria; the priests used a cord of 3 coloured strands, and an image was carried 3 times round an altar.


"Terna tibi hæc primum triplici diversa colore."


The Druids also paid a constant respect to this number; and even their poems are noted as being composed in Triads. It is not necessary here to enlarge upon the transcendent importance of the Christian Trinity. In old paintings we often see a Trinity of Jesus with John and Mary.

In the "Timæus" of Plato, the Divine Triad is called Theos—God, Logos—The Word, and Psyche—the Soul. Indeed it is impossible to study any single system of worship throughout the world, without being struck by the peculiar persistence of the triple number in regard to divinity; whether as a group of deities, a triformed or 3-headed god, a Mysterious Triunity, a deity of 3 powers, or a family relationship of 3 Persons, such as the Father, Mother and Son of the Egyptians, Osiris, Isis and Horus.

And again in the various faiths we see the chief Dignity given in turn to each person of the Triad: some rejoice in the patriarchal Unity, some in the greater glory of the Son, and others again lavish all their adoration on the Great Mother; even in trinities of coequal males, each has his own special worshippers; note this especially among the Hindoos, where for example the followers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas: to complicate matters too, in this case each deity has his female potency or sakti, and these also have their own adherents.

Under this notice of the Triad we may refer to the emblem of the Isle of Man, three legs united at the hips; this is supposed to have been derived from Sicilian Mariners at an early date, for the same emblem is found at Palermo in Sicily, and this design is there to be seen on an old public building. Sicily was anciently named Trinacria, from its three promontories.

Three is a notable number in the mythology of the Norseman: the great Ash-tree Yggdrasil supported the world; it had three roots; one extended into Asgard, the abode of the Gods; one into Jotenheim, the home of the Giants, and the third into Nifleheim, the region of the Unknown. The three Norns (Fates) attend to the root in Asgard: they were Urda—the past; Verdandi—the present; and Skulda—the future.


The Talmuds are crowded with quaint conceits concerning the Triad, and many are very curious.

The ancient Hebrews said there are three night watches, in the first the ass brays, in the second the dog barks, in the third the mother suckles her infant and converses with her husband.

He who three times daily repeats the 114th Psalm is sure of future happiness.

Three precious gifts were given to the Jews; the Law of Moses, the Land of Israel, and Paradise.

In three sorts of dreams there is truth; the last dream of the morning, the dream which is also dreamed by a neighbour, and a dream twice repeated.

Three things calm a man; melody, scenery and sweet scent: and three things improve a man; a fine house, a handsome wife, and good furniture.

He who is born on the Third day of the week will be rich and amorous.

Three despise their fellows; cooks, fortune-tellers and dogs.

Three love their fellows; proselytes, slaves and ravens.


Three persons live a life which is no life; he who lives at another man's table, he who is ruled by his wife, and he who is incapable from bodily affliction.

Orthodox Jews were very particular about the cuttings from the nails; a pious man buries them, an orderly man burns them, but he who throws them away is wicked; for if a woman step over them, mischance may follow. Moed Katon, 18. 1. The nails should be trimmed on a Friday and never on a Thursday.

There are three keys which God keeps to himself, and which no man can gain nor use; the key of life, the key of rain and the key of the resuscitation of the dead. Taanith, 2; 1 and 2.

The Jewish butcher of Kosher meat must use three knives; one to slaughter the animal, another to cut it up, and a third to remove the suet which was unlawful food; as pork is.

Three acolytes must attend the High Priest when he went in to worship; one at his right, one at his left, and one had to hold up the gems on the train of his vestment.

There are three parts of a man. The father gives the white parts, bones, nails, brain and the whites of the eyes; the mother gives the red parts, skin, flesh, etc.: while God gives the breath, soul, mind and senses.

The Sanhedrim could order as a punishment three degrees of Excommunication—separation for an undefined time, exclusion for 60 days, and execration for 30 days. Moed Katon, 17. 1.

The name of Adam is of three letters, A, D and M: these are the initials of Adam, David and Messiah, and the Soul of the first passed to David and then to the Messiah. Nishmath Chajim, 152. 2.


The Soul of Cain passed to Jethro, his spirit into Korah, and his body to an Egyptian. Yalkut Reuben, 9. 18. 24.

The Soul of Eve passed to Sarah, to Hannah the Shunamite, and then to the widow of Zarepta. The Soul of Rahab passed to Heber the Kenite. The Soul of Jael passed to Eli. Some Souls of pious Jews pass into the persons of the Gentiles, so that they shall plead for Israel. Some evil Hebrew souls have passed into animals, as that of Ishmael into the she-ass of Balaam, and later into the ass of Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair. The Soul of a slanderer may be transmigrated into a stone, so as to become silent; and the Soul of a murderer into water. Emeh Hemelech, 153. 1. 2.

 

There are three causes of dropsy, depending on diseases of the breast, the liver and the kidneys.

There are three forms of coma, that is insensibility; due to brain injury, brain disease and brain poisoning.

There are three modes of death, beginning either at the brain, the lungs or the heart. Bichat, Physiologie.

One Zodiacal Sign, that of Scorpio, has three emblems; the eagle in the highest symbolism, the snake, and the scorpion in evil aspects only.

Astrologic Natal Figures are often erroneous by reason of the alleged moment of birth being incorrect: there are three modes of Rectification, two are ancient, the Animodar of Ptolemy and the Trutine of Hermes; and there is one modern method, the Natal Epoch of W. R. Old.

In both the Old and the New Testaments we find the Day was divided into three day watches and four night watches. The mediæval occultists divided the days into Planetary hours, the scheme of alternation occupied a week, 7 days × 24 hours= 168 hours, so 168 hours are divisible among the Seven Planets, each day beginning with its own different one; see Harleian MSS. 6483, and "The Herbal," Culpepper, 1814.

There is also another scheme in which the planets are related to a six-hour period by Ragon and Blavatsky.


Among the Brahmins there were three great Vedas; three Margas or ways of salvation; three Gunas, the Satva, quiescence; Rajas, desire; and Tamas, decay. Three Lokas, Swarga, Bhumi and Patala; heaven, earth and hell. Three Jewels of wisdom, the Tri-ratnas; Buddha, Dharma and Sanga. The three Fires being the three aspects of the human soul, Atma, Buddhi and Manas. There were three prongs of the trident, and three eyes in the forehead of Siva. Note also the 3-syllabled Holy Word Aum.

At the Oblation of the Elements in the Celtic Church, 3 drops of Wine and 3 drops of water were poured into the chalice. In the present Christian Church we notice 3 crossings with water at Baptism, 3 Creeds; the Banns of Marriage are published 3 times; and a Bishop in benediction makes the sign of the Cross 3 times.

In Roman Catholic churches, the Angelus Bell is rung three times a day, a peal of 3 times 3 for the heavenly hierarchies of angels: Pope John XXII. ordered that the faithful should say 3 Aves on each occasion.

In civil life the usher of a court 3 times repeats the warning Oyez, Oyez, Oyez, which word means "hear" or "listen."

Note also the emblem of the Irish nation, the Shamrock, which has a three-lobed leaf, the Oxalis acefosella.


The Trigrams of Fo-hi should be studied in "The Yi-King," a book of Ancient China said to have been the production of King Wan and his son, Kau. The great Confucius wrote a supplement to it. This book is a mystical work on Symbolism referring to Cosmogony, to Man, and to the purposes of life. The initial symbols are the Yang, male, and the Yin, female. Then follow 8 trigrams, formed of emblematical lines; they are:—khien, tui, li, chan, sien, khan, kan and kwan; each expressed by figures of one long and two short lines. Some say that one Fo-Hi invented these symbols. A later Mystic expanded the system into 64 figures, each composed of 6 lines of whole and half lines. With these were associated two diagrams formed of circles, named the "River Horse," and the "Writing of

Lo": these will repay the contemplation of modern occultists. Yang, male, is also associated with Heaven, the Sun, Light and 25 the total of the odd units. Yin, female, with the Moon, the Earth, darkness and the number 30, the total of the even numbers to ten. See "Sacred Books of the East"; "The Yi-King."


Numbers, Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott

THE WAY FROM DARKNESS TO TRUE ILLUMINATION

A DISCOURSEBETWEENA SOUL HUNGRY AND THIRSTYAFTERTHE FOUNTAIN OF LIFE, THE SWEET LOVE OF JESUS CHRIST,ANDA SOUL ENLIGHTENED.

SHEWING


Which Way one Soul should seek after and comfort another, and bring it by Means of its Knowledge into the Paths of Christ's Pilgrimage, and faithfully warn it of the thorny Way of the World, which leadeth the fallen Soul that naturally walketh therein, into the Abyss or Pit of Hell.


Composed by a Soul that loveth all who are the Children of Jesus Christ under the Cross.


THE WAY FROM DARKNESS TO TRUE ILLUMINATION


There was a poor soul that had wandered out of paradise, and come into the kingdom of this world; where the devil met with it, and said to it, "Whither dost thou go, thou soul that art half blind?"

The Soul said: I would see and speculate into the creatures of the world, which the Creator hath made.


The Devil said: How wilt thou see and speculate into them, when thou canst not know their essence and property? Thou wilt look upon their outside only, as upon a graven image, and canst not know them throughly.


The Soul said: How may I come to know their essence and property?


The Devil said: Thine eyes would be opened to see them throughly, if thou didst but eat of that from whence the creatures themselves are come to be good and evil. Thou wouldst then be as God himself is, and know what the creature is.


The Soul said: I am now a noble and holy creature; but if I should do so, the Creator hath said, that I should die.


The Devil said: No, thou shouldst not die at all; but thy eyes would be opened, and thou wouldst be as God himself, and be master of good and evil. Also, thou shouldst be mighty, powerful, and very great, as I am; all the subtilty that is in the creatures would be made known to thee.


The Soul said: If I had the knowledge of nature and of the creatures, I would then rule the whole world as I listed.


The Devil said: The whole ground of that knowledge lieth in thee. Do but turn thy will and desire from God or goodness into nature and the creatures, and then there will arise in thee a lust to taste; and so thou mayest eat of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and by that means come to know all things.


The Soul said: Well then, I will eat of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, that I may rule all things by my own power; and be of myself a lord on earth, and do what I will, as God himself doth.


The Devil said: T am the prince of this world; and if thou wouldst rule on earth, thou must turn thy lust towards my image, or desire to be like me, that thou mayest get the cunning, wit, reason, and subtilty, that my image hath.

Thus did the devil present to the soul the Vulcan in the Mercury (the power that is in the fiery root of the creature), that is, the fiery wheel of essence or substance, in the form of a serpent. Upon which,


The Soul said: Behold, this is the power which can do all things.—What must I do to get it?


The Devil said: Thou thyself art also such a fiery Mercury. If thou dost break thy will off from God, and bring it into this power and skill, then thy hidden ground will be manifested in thee, and thou mayest work in the same manner. But thou must eat of that fruit, wherein each of the four elements in itself ruleth over the other, and is in strife; the heat striving against the cold, and the cold against the heat; and so all the properties of nature work feelingly. And then thou wilt instantly be as the fiery wheel is, and so bring all things into thine own power, and possess them as thine own.


The Soul did so, and what happened thereupon


Now when the soul broke its will thus off from God, and brought it into the Mercury, or the fiery will (which is the root of life and power), there presently arose in it a lust to eat of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil; and the soul did eat thereof. Which as soon as it had done, Vulcan (or the artificer in the fire) instantly kindled the fiery wheel of its substance, and thereupon all the properties of nature awoke in the soul and exercised each its own lust and desire.

First arose the lust of pride; a desire to be great, mighty, and powerful; to bring all things under subjection to it, and so to be lord itself without control; despising all humility and equality, as esteeming itself the only prudent, witty, and cunning one, and accounting everything folly that is not according to its own humour and liking.

Secondly arose the lust of covetousness; a desire of getting, which would draw all things to itself, into its own possession. For when the lust of pride had turned away the will from God, then the life of the soul would not trust God any further, but would take care for itself; and therefore brought its desire into the creatures, viz. into the earth, metals, trees, and other creatures. Thus the kindled fiery life became hungry and covetous, when it had broken itself off from the unity, love, and meekness of God, and attracted to itself the four elements and their essence, and brought itself into the condition of the beasts; and so the life became dark, empty, and wrathful; and the heavenly virtues and'colours went out, like a candle extinguished.


Thirdly, there awoke in this fiery life the stinging thorny lust of envy; a hellish poison, a property which all devils have, and a torment which makes the life a mere enmity to God, and to all creatures. Which envy raged 'furiously in the desire of covetousness, as a venomous sting doth in the body. Envy cannot endure, but hateth and would hurt or destroy that which covetousness cannot draw to itself, by which hellish passion the noble love of the soul is smothered.

Fourthly, there awoke in this fiery life a torment like fire, viz. anger; which would murther and remove out of the way all who would not be subject to pride. Thus the ground and foundation of hell, which is called the anger of God, was wholly manifested in this soul. Whereby it lost the fair paradise of God and the kingdom of heaven, and became such a worm as the fiery serpent was, which the devil presented to it in his own image and likeness. And so the soul began to rule on earth in a bestial manner, and did all things according to the will of the devil; living in mere pride, covetousness, envy, and anger, having no longer any true love towards God. But there arose in the stead thereof an evil bestial love of filthy lechery, wantonness, and vanity, and there was no purity left in the heart; for the soul had forsaken paradise, and taken the earth into its possession. Its mind was wholly bent upon cunning knowledge, subtilty, and getting together a multitude of earthly things. No righteousness nor virtue remained in it at all; but whatsoever evil and wrong it committed, it covered all cunningly and subtilly under the cloak of its power and authority by law, and called it by the name of right and justice, and accounted it good.


The Devil came to the Soul


Upon this the devil drew near to the soul, and brought it on from one vice to another, for he had taken it captive in his essence, and set joy and pleasure before it therein, saying thus to it: Behold, now thou art powerful, mighty, and noble, endeavour to be greater, richer, and more powerful still. Display thy knowledge, wit, and subtilty, that every one may fear thee, and stand in awe of thee, and that thou mayest be respected, and get a great name in the world.


The Soul did so


The soul did as the devil counselled it, and yet knew not that its counsellor was the devil; but thought it was guided by its own knowledge, wit, and understanding, and that it did very well and right all the while.


Jesus Christ met with the Soul


The soul going on in this course of life, our dear and loving Lord Jesus Christ, who was come into this world with the love and wrath of God, to destroy the works of the devil, and to execute judgement upon all ungodly deeds, on a time met with it, and spake by a strong power, viz. by his passion and death, into it, and destroyed the works of the devil in it, and discovered to it the way to his grace, and shone upon it with his mercy, calling it to return and repent; and promising that he would then deliver it from that monstrous deformed shape or image which it had gotten, and bring it into paradise again.


How Christ wrought in the Soul


Now when the spark of the love of God, or the divine light, was accordingly manifested in the soul, it presently saw itself with its will and works to be in hell, in the wrath of God, and found that it was a misshapen ugly monster in the divine presence and the kingdom of heaven; at which it was so affrighted, that it fell into the greatest anguish possible, for the judgement of God was manifested in it.


What Christ said


Upon this the Lord Christ spake into it with the voice of his grace, and said, "Repent and forsake vanity, and thou shalt attain my grace."


What the Soul said


Then the soul in its ugly misshapen image, with the defiled coat of vanity, went before God, and entreated for grace and the pardon of its sins, and came to be strongly persuaded in itself, that the satisfaction and atonement of our Lord Jesus Christ did belong to it. But the evil properties of the serpent, formed in the astral spirit, or reason of the outward man, would not suffer the will of the soul to come before God, but brought their lusts and inclinations thereinto. For those evil properties would not die to their own lusts, nor leave the world, for they were come out of the world, and therefore they feared the reproach of it, in case they should forsake their worldly honour and glory.

But the poor soul turned its countenance towards God, and desired grace from him, even that he would bestow his love upon it.


The Devil came to it again


But when the devil saw that the soul thus prayed to God, and would enter into repentance, he drew near to it, and thrust the inclinations of the earthly properties into its prayers, and disturbed its good thoughts and desires which pressed forward towards God, and drew them back again to earthly things that they might have no access to him.


The Soul sighed


The central will of the soul indeed sighed after God, but the thoughts arising in the mind, that it should penetrate into him, were distracted, scattered, and destroyed, so that they could not reach the power of God. At which the poor soul was still more affrighted, and began to pray more earnestly. But the devil with his desire took hold of the mercurial kindled fiery wheel of life, and awakened the evil properties, so that evil or false inclinations arose in the soul, and went into that thing wherein they had taken most pleasure and delight before.

The poor soul would very fain go forward to God with its will, and therefore used all its endeavours; but its thoughts continually fled away from God into earthly things, and would not go to him.

Upon this the soul sighed and bewailed itself to God; but was as if it were quite forsaken by him, and cast out from his presence. It could not get so much as one look of grace, but was in mere anguish, fear, and terror, and dreaded every moment that the wrath and severe judgement of God would be manifested in it, and that the devil would take hold of it and have it. And thereupon fell into such great heaviness and sorrow, that it became weary of all the temporal things, which before were its chief joy and happiness.

The earthly natural will indeed desired those things still, but the soul would willingly leave them altogether, and desired to die to all temporal lust and joy whatsoever, and longed only after its first native country, from whence it originally came. But found itself to be far from thence, in great distress and want, and knew not what to do, yet resolved to enter into itself, and try to pray more earnestly.


The Devil's Opposition


But the devil opposed it, and withheld it so that it could not bring itself into any greater fervency of repentance.

He awakened the earthly lusts in its heart, that they might still keep their evil nature and false right therein, and set them at variance with the new-born will and desire of the soul. For they would not die to their own will and light, but would still maintain their temporal pleasures, and so kept the poor soul captive in their evil desires, that it could not stir, though it sighed and longed never so much after the grace of God. For whensoever it prayed, or offered to press forward towards God, then the lusts of the flesh swallowed up the rays and ejaculations that went forth from it, and brought them away from God into earthly thoughts, that it might not partake of divine strength. Which caused the poor soul to think itself forsaken of God, not knowing that he was so near it, and did thus attract it. Also the devil got access to it, and entered into the fiery Mercury, or fiery wheel of its life, and mingled his desires with the earthly lusts of the flesh, and tempted the poor soul; saying to it in the earthly thoughts, "Why dost thou pray? Dost thou think that God knoweth thee or regardeth thee? Consider but what thoughts thou hast in his presence; are they not altogether evil? Thou hast no faith or belief in God at all; how then should he hear thee? He heareth thee not, leave off; why wilt thou needlessly torment and vex thyself? Thou hast time enough to repent at leisure. Wilt thou be mad? Do but look upon the world, I pray thee, a little; doth it not live in jollity and mirth? yet it will be saved well enough for all that. Hath not Christ paid the ransom and satisfied for all men? Thou needest only persuade and comfort thyself that it is done for thee, and then thou shalt be saved. Thou canst not possibly in this world come to any feeling of God; therefore leave off, and take care for thy body, and look after temporal glory. What dost thou suppose will become of thee, if thou turn to be so stupid and melancholy? Thou wilt be the scorn of everybody, and they will laugh at thy folly; and so thou wilt spend thy days in mere sorrow and heaviness, which is pleasing neither to God nor nature. I pray thee, look upon the beauty of the world; for God hath created and placed thee in it, to be a lord over all creatures, and to rule them. Gather store of temporal goods beforehand, that thou mayest not be beholden to the world, or stand in need hereafter. And when old age cometh, or that thou growest near thy end, then prepare thyself for repentance. God will save thee, and receive thee into the heavenly mansions then. There is no need of such ado in vexing, bewailing, and stirring up thyself, as thou makest."


The Condition of the Soul


In these and the like thoughts the soul was ensnared by the devil, and brought into the lusts of the flesh, and earthly desires; and so bound as it were with fetters and strong chains, that it did not know what to do. It looked back a little into the world and the pleasures thereof, but still felt in itself a hunger after divine grace, and would always rather enter into repentance, and favour with God. For the hand of God had touched and bruised it, and therefore it could rest nowhere; but always sighed in itself after sorrow for the sins it had committed, and would fain be rid of them. Yet could not get true repentance, or even the knowledge of sin, though it had a mighty hunger and longing desire after such penitential sorrow.

The soul being thus heavy and sad, and finding no remedy or rest, began to cast about where it might find a fit place to perform true repentance in, where it might be free from business, cares, and the hinderances of the world; and also by what means it might win the favour of God. And at length purposed to betake itself to some private solitary place, and give over all worldly employments and temporal things; and hoped, that by being bountiful and pitiful to the poor, it should obtain God's mercy. Thus did it devise all kinds of ways to get rest, and gain the love, favour, and grace of God again. But all would not do; for its worldly business still followed it in the lusts of the flesh, and it was ensnared in the net of the devil now, as well as before, arid could not attain rest. And though for a little while it was somewhat cheered with earthly things, yet presently it fell to be as sad and heavy again, as it was before. The truth was, it felt the awakened wrath of God in itself, but knew not how that came to pass, nor what it ailed. For many times great trouble and terror fell upon it, which made it comfortless, sick, and faint with very fear; so mightily did the first bruising it with the ray or influence of the stirring of grace work upon it. And yet it knew not that Christ was in the wrath and severe justice of God, and fought therein with Satan that spirit of error, which was incorporated in soul and body; nor understood that the hunger and desire to turn and repent came from Christ himself, by which it was drawn in this manner; neither did it know what hindered that it could not yet attain to divine feeling. It knew not that itself was a monster, and did bear the image of the serpent, in which the devil had such power and access to it, and had confounded all its good desires, thoughts, and motions, and brought them away from God and goodness; concerning which Christ himself said, "The devil snatcheth the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved."


An enlightened and regenerate Soul met the distressed Soul


By the providence of God, an enlightened and regenerate soul met this poor afflicted and distressed soul, and said, "What ailest thou, thou distressed soul, that thou art so restless and troubled?"


The distressed Soul answered


The Creator hath hid his countenance from me, so that I cannot come to his rest; therefore I am thus troubled, and know not what I shall do to get his loving-kindness again. For great cliffs and rocks lie in my way to his grace, so that I cannot come to him. Though I sigh and long after him never so much, yet I am kept back, that I cannot partake of his power, virtue, and strength.


The enlightened Soul said


Thou bearest the monstrous shape of the devil, and art clothed therewith; in which, being his own property or principle, he hath access or power of entrance into thee, and thereby keepeth thy will from penetrating into God. For if thy will might penetrate into God, it would be anointed with the highest power and strength of God, in the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that unction would break in pieces the monster which thou carriest about thee; and thy first image of paradise would revive in the centre; which would destroy the devil's power therein, and thou wouldst become an angel again. And because the devil envieth thee this happiness, he holdeth thee captive in his desire in the lusts of the flesh; from which if thou art not delivered, thou wilt be separated from God, and canst never enter into our society.


The distressed Soul terrified


At this speech the poor distressed soul was so terrified and amazed, that it could not speak one word more. When it found that it stood in the form and condition of the serpent, which separated it from God; and that the devil was so nigh it in that condition, who injected evil thoughts into the will of the soul, and had so much power over it thereby, that it was near damnation, and sticking fast in the abyss or bottomless pit of hell, in the anger of God; it would have even despaired of divine mercy; but that the power, virtue, and strength of the first stirring of the grace of God, which had before bruised the soul, upheld and preserved it from total despair. But still it wrestled in itself between hope and doubt; whatsoever hope built up, that doubt threw down again. And thus was it agitated with such continual disquiet, that at last the world and all the glory thereof became loathsome to it, neither would it enjoy worldly pleasures any more; and yet for all this, could it not come to rest.


The enlightened Soul came again, and spoke to the troubled Soul


On a time the enlightened soul came again to this soul, and finding it still in so great trouble, anguish, and grief of mind, said to it:


What dost thou? Wilt thou destroy thyself in thy anguish and sorrow? Why dost torment thyself in thy own power and will, who art but a worm, seeing thy torment increaseth thereby more and more? Yea, if thou shouldst sink thyself down to the bottom of the sea, or couldst fly to the uttermost coasts of the morning, or raise thyself above the stars, yet thou wouldst not be released. For the more thou grievest, tormentest, and troublest thyself, the more painful thy nature will be; and yet thou wilt not be able to come to rest. For thy power is quite lost; and as a dry stick burnt to a coal cannot grow green and spring afresh by its own power, nor get sap to flourish again with other trees and plants; so neither canst thou reach the place of God by thy own power and strength, and transform thyself into that angelical image which thou hadst at first. For in respect to God thou art withered and dry, like a dead plant that hath lost its sap and strength, and so art become a dry tormenting hunger. Thy properties are like heat and cold, which continually strive one against the other, and can never unite.


The distressed Soul said


What then shall I do to bud forth again, and recover the first life, wherein I was at rest before I became an image?


The enlightened Soul said


Thou shalt do nothing at all but forsake thy own will, viz. that which thou callest I, or thyself. By which means all thy evil properties will grow weak, faint, and ready to die; and then thou wilt sink down again into that one thing, from which thou art originally sprung. For now thou liest captive in the creatures; but if thy will forsaketh them, the creatures, with their evil inclinations, will die in thee, which at present stay and hinder thee, that thou canst not come to God. But if thou takest this course, thy God will meet thee with his infinite love, which he path manifested in Christ Jesus in the humanity, or human nature. And that will impart sap, life, and vigour to thee; whereby thou mayest bud, spring, flourish again, and rejoice in the living God, as a branch growing on his true vine. And so thou wilt at length recover the image of God, and be delivered from the image or condition of the serpent: Then shalt thou come to be my brother, and have fellowship with the angels.


The poor Soul said


How can I forsake my will, so that the creatures which lodge therein may die, seeing I must be in the world, and also have need of it as long as I live?


The enlightened Soul said


Now thou hast worldly power and riches, which thou possessest as thy own, to do what thou wilt with, and regardest not how thou gettest or usest the same; employing them in the service and indulgence of thy carnal and vain desires. Nay, though thou seest the poor and needy wretch, who wanteth thy help, and is thy brother, yet thou helpest him not, but layest heavy burdens upon him, by requiring more of him than his abilities will bear, or his necessities afford; and oppressest him, by forcing him to spend his labour and sweat for thee, and the gratification of thy voluptuous will. Thou art moreover proud, and insultest over him, and behavest roughly and sternly to him, exalting thyself above him, and making small account of him in respect of thyself. Then that poor oppressed brother of thine cometh, and complaineth with sighs towards God, that he cannot reap the benefit of his labour and pains, but is forced by thee to live in misery. By which sighings and groanings of his he raiseth up the wrath of God in thee; which maketh thy flame and unquietness still the greater. These are the creatures which thou art in love with, and hast broken thyself off from God for their sakes, and brought thy love into them, or them into thy love, so that they live therein. Thou nourishest and keepest them by continually receiving them into thy desire, for they live in and by thy receiving them into thy mind; because thou thereby bringest the lust of thy life into them. They are but unclean, filthy, and evil births, and issues of the bestial nature, which yet, by thy receiving them in thy lust or desire, have gotten an image, and formed themselves in thee. And that image is a beast with four heads: First, Pride. Secondly, Covetousness. Thirdly, Envy. Fourthly, Anger. And in these four properties the foundation of hell consisteth, which thou carriest in thee and about thee. It is imprinted and engraven in thee, and thou art wholly taken captive thereby. For these properties live in thy natural life; and thereby thou art severed from God, neither canst thou ever come to him, unless thou so forsake these evil creatures that they may die in thee.


But since thou desirest me to tell thee how to forsake thy own perverse creaturely will, that the creatures might die, and that yet thou mightest live with them in the world. I must assure thee that there is but one way to do it, which is narrow and straight, and will be very hard and irksome to thee at the beginning, but afterwards thou wilt walk in it cheerfully.

Thou must seriously consider, that in the course of this worldly life thou walkest in the anger of God and in the foundation of hell; and that this is not thy true native country; but that a Christian should, and must live in Christ, and in his walking truely follow him; and that he cannot be a Christian, unless the spirit and power of Christ so live in him, that he becometh wholly subject to it. Now seeing the kingdom of Christ is not of this world, but in heaven, therefore thou must always be in a continual ascension towards heaven, if thou wilt follow Christ; though thy body must dwell among the creatures and use them.

The narrow way to which perpetual ascension into heaven and imitation of Christ is this: Thou must despair of all thy own power and strength, for in and by thy own power thou canst not reach the gates of God; and firmly purpose and resolve wholly to give thyself up to the mercy of God, and to sink down with thy whole mind and reason into the passion and death of our Lord Jesus Christ, always desiring to persevere in the same, and to die from all thy creatures therein. Also thou must resolve to watch and guard thy mind, thoughts, and inclinations that they admit no evil into them, neither must thou suffer thyself to be held fast by temporal honour or profit. Thou must resolve likewise to put away from thee all unrighteousness, and whatsoever else may hinder the freedom of thy motion and progress. Thy will must be wholly pure, and fixed in a firm resolution never to return to its old idols any more, but that thou wilt that very instant leave them, and separate thy mind from them, and enter into the sincere way of truth and righteousness, according to the plain and full doctrine of Christ. And as thou dost thus purpose to forsake the enemies of thine own inward nature, so thou must also forgive all thy outward enemies, and resolve to meet them with thy love; that there may be left no creature, person, or thing at all able to take hold of thy will and captivate it; but that it may be sincere, and purged from all creatures. Nay further; if it should be required, thou must be willing and ready to forsake all thy temporal honour and profit for Christ's sake, and regard nothing that is earthly so as to set thy heart and affections upon it; but esteem thyself in whatsoever state, degree, and condition thou art, as to worldly rank or riches, to be but a servant of God and of thy fellow-Christians; or as a steward in the office wherein thy Lord hath placed thee. All arrogance and self-exaltation must be humbled, brought low, and so annihilated that nothing of thine own or of any other creature may stay in thy will to bring thy thoughts or imagination to be set upon it.


Thou must also firmly impress it on thy mind, that thou shalt certainly partake of the promised grace in the merit of Jesus Christ, viz. of his outflowing love, which indeed is already in thee, and which will deliver thee from thy creatures, and enlighten thy will, and kindle it with the flame of love, whereby thou shalt have victory over the devil. Not as if thou couldst will or do anything in thine own strength, but only enter into the suffering and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and take them to thyself, and with them assault and break in pieces the kingdom of the devil in thee, and mortify thy creatures. Thou must resolve to enter into this way this very hour, and never to depart from it, but willingly to submit thyself to God in all thy endeavours and doings, that he may do with thee what he pleaseth.

When thy will is thus prepared and resolved, it hath then broken through its own creatures, and is sincere in the presence of God, and clothed with the merits of Jesus Christ. It may then freely go to the Father with the Prodigal Son, and fall down in his presence and pour forth its prayers; and putting forth all its strength in this divine work, confess its sins and disobedience; and how far it hath departed from God. This must be done not with bare words, but with all its strength, which indeed amounteth only to a strong purpose and resolution; for the soul of itself hath no strength or power to effect any good work.


Now when thou art thus ready, and that thy Heavenly Father shall see thy coming and returning to him in such repentance and humility, he will inwardly speak to thee, and say in thee, "Behold, this is my son which I had lost, he was dead and is alive again." And he will come to meet thee in thy mind with the grace and love of Jesus Christ, and embrace thee with the beams of his love, and kiss thee with his Spirit and strength; and then thou shalt receive grace to pour out thy confession before him, and to pray powerfully. This indeed is the right place where thou must wrestle in the light of his countenance. And if thou standest resolutely here, and shrinkest not back, thou shalt see or feel great wonders. For thou shalt find Christ in thee assaulting hell, and crushing thy beasts in pieces, and that a great tumult and misery will arise in thee; also thy secret undiscovered sins will then first awake, and labour to separate thee from God, and to keep thee back. Thus shalt thou truely find and feel how death and life fight one against the other, and shalt understand by what passeth within thyself, what heaven and hell are. At all which be not moved, but stand firm and shrink not; for at length all thy creatures will grow faint, weak, and ready to die; and then thy will shall wax stronger, and be able to subdue and keep down the evil inclinations. So shall thy will and mind ascend into heaven every day, and thy creatures gradually die away. Thou wilt get a mind wholly new, and begin to be a new creature, and getting rid of the bestial deformity, recover the divine image. Thus shalt thou be delivered from thy present anguish, and return to thy original rest.


The poor Soul's Practice


Then the poor soul began to practise this course with such earnestness, that it conceived it should get the victory presently; but it found that the gates of heaven were shut against it in its own strength and power, and it was, as it were, rejected and forsaken by God, and received not so much as one look or glimpse of grace from him. Upon which it said to itself, "Surely thou hast not sincerely submitted thyself to God. Desire nothing at all of him, but only submit thyself to his judgement and condemnation, that he may kill thy evil inclinations. Sink down into him beyond the limits of nature and creature, and submit thyself to him, that he may do with thee what he will, for thou art not worthy to speak to him." Accordingly the soul took a resolution to sink down, and to forsake its own will; and when it had done so, there fell upon it presently the greatest repentance that could be for the sins it had committed; and it bewailed bitterly its ugly shape, and was truely and deeply sorry that the evil creatures did dwell in it. And because of its sorrow it could not speak one word more in the presence of God, but in its repentance did consider the bitter passion and death of Jesus Christ, viz. what great anguish and torment he had suffered for its sake, in order to deliver it out of its anguish, and change it into the image of God. In which consideration it wholly sunk down, and did nothing but complain of its ignorance and negligence, and that it had not been thankful to its Redeemer, nor once considered the great love he had shewn to it, but had idly spent its time, and not at all regarded how it might come to partake of his purchased and proffered grace; but instead thereof had formed in itself the images and figures of earthly things, with the vain lusts and pleasures of the world. Whereby it had gotten such bestial inclinations, that now it must lie captive in great misery, and for very shame dared not lift up its eyes to God, who hid the light of his countenance from it, and would not so much as look upon it. And as it was thus sighing and crying, it was drawn into the abyss or pit of horror, and laid it as it were at the gates of hell, there to perish. Upon which the poor troubled soul was, as it were, bereft of sense, and wholly forsaken, so that it in a manner forgot all its doings, and would willingly yield itself to death, and cease to be a creature. Accordingly it did yield itself to death, and desired nothing else but to die and perish in the death of its Redeemer Jesus Christ, who had suffered such torments and death for its sake. And in this perishing it began to sigh and pray in itself very inwardly to the divine goodness, and to sink down into the mere mercy of God.


Upon this there suddenly appeared unto it the amiable countenance of the love of God, which penetrated through it as a great light, and made it exceedingly joyful. It then began to pray aright, and to thank the Most High for such grace, and to rejoice abundantly, that it was delivered from the death and anguish of hell. Now it tasted of the sweetness of God, and of his promised truth; and now all the evil spirits which had harassed it before, and kept it back from the grace, love, and inward presence of God, were forced to depart from it. The "wedding of the Lamb" was now kept and solemnised, that is, the noble Sophia espoused or betrothed herself to the soul; and the seal-ring of Christ's victory was impressed into its essence, and it was received to be a child and heir of God again.

When this was done, the soul became very joyful, and began to work in this new power, and to celebrate with praise the wonders of God, and thought thenceforth to walk continually in the same light, strength, and joy. But it was soon assaulted; from without, by the shame and reproach of the world, and from within, by great temptation, so that it began to doubt whether its ground was truely from God, and whether it had really partaken of his grace. For the accuser Satan went to it, and would fain lead it out of this course, and make it doubtful whether it was the true way; whispering thus to it inwardly, "This happy change in thy spirit is not from God, but only from thine own imagination." Also the divine light retired in the soul, and shone but in the inward ground, as fire raked up in embers, so that reason was perplexed, and thought itself forsaken, and the soul knew not what had happened to itself, nor whether it had really and truely tasted of the heavenly gift or not. Yet it could not leave off struggling; for the burning fire of love was sown in it, which had raised in it a vehement and continual hunger and thirst after the divine sweetness. So at length it began to pray aright, and to humble itself in the presence of God, and to examine and try its evil inclinations and thoughts, and to put them away. By which means the will of reason was broken, and the evil inclinations inherent in it were killed, and extirpated more and more. This process was very severe and painful to the nature of the body, for it made it faint and weak, as if it had been very sick; and yet it was no natural sickness that it had, but only the melancholy of its earthly nature, feeling and lamenting the destruction of its evil lusts.


Now when the earthly reason found itself thus forsaken, and the poor soul saw that it was despised outwardly, and derided by the world, because it would walk no longer in the way of wickedness and vanity; and also that it was inwardly assaulted by the accuser Satan, who mocked it, and continually set before it the beauty, riches, and glory of the world, and called it a fool for not embracing them; it began to think and say thus within itself: "O eternal God! What shall I now do to come to rest?"


The enlightened Soul met it again, and spoke to it


While it was in this consideration, the enlightened soul met with it again, and said, "What ailest thou, my brother, that thou art so heavy and sad?"


The distressed Soul said


I have followed thy counsel, and thereby attained a ray, or emanation of the divine sweetness, but it is gone from me again, and I am now deserted. Moreover I have outwardly very great trials and afflictions in the world; for all my good friends forsake and scorn me; and am also inwardly assaulted with anguish, and doubt, and know not what to do.


The enlightened Soul said


Now I like thee very well; for now our beloved Lord Jesus Christ is performing that pilgrimage or process on earth with thee and in thee, which he did himself when he was in this world, who was continually reviled, despised, and evil spoken of, and had nothing of his own in it; and now thou bearest his mark or badge. But do not wonder at it, or think it strange; for it must be so, in order that thou mayest be tried, refined, and purified. In this anguish and distress thou wilt necessarily hunger and cry after deliverance; and by such hunger and prayer thou wilt attract grace to thee both from within and from without. For thou must grow from above and from beneath to be the image of God again. Just as a young plant is agitated by the wind, and must stand its ground in heat and cold, drawing strength and virtue to it from above and from beneath by that agitation, and must endure many a tempest, and undergo much danger before it can come to be a tree, and bring forth fruit. For through that agitation the virtue of the sun moveth in the plant, whereby its wild properties come to be penetrated and tinctured with the solar virtue, and grow thereby.


And this is the time wherein thou must play the part of a valiant soldier in the spirit of Christ, and co-operate thyself therewith. For now the Eternal Father by his fiery power begetteth his son in thee, who changeth the fire of the Father, namely, the first principle, or wrathful property of the soul, into the flame of love, so that out of fire and light (viz. wrath and love) there cometh to be one essence, being, or substance, which is the true temple of God. And now thou shalt bud forth out of the vine Christ, in the vineyard of God, and bring forth fruit in thy life, and by assisting and instructing others, shew forth thy love in abundance, as a good tree. For paradise must thus spring up again in thee, through the wrath of God, and hell he changed into heaven in thee. Therefore be not dismayed at the temptations of the devil, who seeketh and striveth for the kingdom which he once had in thee; but, having now lost it, must be confounded, and depart from thee. And he covereth thee outwardly with the shame and reproach of the world, that his own shame may not be known, and that thou mayest be hidden to the world. For with thy new birth or regenerated nature thou art in the divine harmony in heaven. Be patient, therefore, and wait upon the Lord; and whatsoever shall befall thee, take it all from his hands, as intended by him for thy highest good. And so the enlightened soul departed from it.


The distressed Soul's Course


The distressed soul began its course now under the patient suffering of Christ, and depending solely upon the strength and power of God in it, entered into hope. Thenceforth it grew stronger every day, and its evil inclinations died more and more in it. So that it arrived at length to a high state or degree of grace; and the gates of the divine revelation, and the kingdom of heaven, were opened to, and manifested in it.

And thus the soul through repentance, faith, and prayer, returned to its original and true rest, and became a right and beloved child of God again; to which may he of his infinite mercy help us all. Amen.



The Signature of All Things, by Jacob Boehem 

Alchemical Catechism

A SHORT CATECHISM OF ALCHEMY


Q. What is the chief study of a Philosopher?
A. It is the investigation of the operations of Nature.


Q. What is the end of Nature?
A. God, Who is also its beginning.


Q. Whence are all things derived?
A. From one and indivisible Nature.


Q. Into how many regions is Nature separated?
A. Into four palmary regions.


Q. Which are they?
A. The dry, the moist, the warm, and the cold, which are the four elementary qualities, whence all things originate.


Q. How is Nature differentiated?
A. Into male and female.


Q. To what may we compare Nature?
A. To Mercury.


Q. Give a concise definition of Nature.
A. It is not visible, though it operates visibly; for it is simply a volatile spirit, fulfilling its office in bodies, and animated by the universal spirit-the divine breath, the central and universal fire, which vivifies all things that exist.


Q. What should be the qualities possessed by the examiners of Nature?
A. They should be like unto Nature herself. That is to say, they should be truthful, simple, patient, and persevering.


Q. What matters should subsequently engross their attention?
A. The philosophers should most carefully ascertain whether their designs are in harmony with Nature, and of a possible and attainable kind; if they would accomplish by their own power anything that is usually performed by the power of Nature, they must imitate her in every detail.


Q. What method must be followed in order to produce something which shall be developed to a superior degree than Nature herself develops it.
A. The manner of its improvement must be studied, and this is invariably operated by means of a like nature. For example, if it be desired to develop the intrinsic virtue of a given metal beyond its natural condition, the chemist must avail himself of the metallic nature itself, and must be able to discriminate between its male and female differentiations.


Q. Where does the metallic nature store her seeds?
A. In the four elements.


Q. With what materials can the philosopher alone accomplish anything?
A. With the germ of the given matter; this is its elixir or quintessence, more precious by far, and more useful, to the artist, than is Nature herself. Before the philosopher has extracted the seed, or germ, Nature, in his behalf, will be ready to perform her duty.


Q. What is the germ, or seed, of any substance?
A. It is the most subtle and perfect decoction and digestion of the substance itself; or, rather, it is the Balm of Sulphur, which is identical with the Radical Moisture of Metals.


Q. By what is this seed, or germ, engendered?
A. By the four elements, subject to the will of the Supreme Being, and through the direct intervention of the imagination of Nature.


Q. After what manner do the four elements operate?
A. By means of an incessant and uniform motion, each one, according to its quality, depositing its seed in the centre of the earth, where it is subjected to action and digested, and is subsequently expelled in an outward direction by the laws of movement.


Q. What do the philosophers understand by the centre of the earth?
A. A certain void place where nothing may repose, and the existence of which is assumed.


Q. Where, then, do the four elements expel and deposit their seeds?
A. In the ex-centre, or in the margin and circumference of the centre, which, after it has appropriated a portion, casts out the surplus into the region of excrement, scoriae, fire, and formless chaos.


Q. Illustrate this teaching by an example.
A. Take any level table, and set in its centre a vase filled with water; surround the vase with several things of various colours, especially salt, taking care that a proper distance intervenes between them all. Then pour out the water from the vase, and it will flow in streams here and there; one will encounter a substance of a red colour, and will assume a tinge of red; another will pass over the salt, and will contract a saline flavour; for it is certain that water does not modify the places which it traverses, but the diverse characteristics of places change the nature of water. In the same way the seed which is deposited by the four elements at the centre of the earth is subject to a variety of modifications in the places through which it passes, so that every existing substance is produced in the likeness of its channel, and when a seed on its arrival at a certain point encounters pure earth and pure water, a pure substance results, but the contrary in an opposite case.


Q. After what manner do the elements procreate this seed?
A. In order to the complete elucidation of this point, it must be observed that there are two gross and heavy elements and two that are volatile in character. Two, in like manner, are dry and two humid, one out of the four being actually excessively dry, and the other excessively moist. They are also masculine and feminine. Now, each of them has a marked tendency to reproduce its own species within its own sphere. Moreover, they are never in repose, but are perpetually interacting, and each of them separates, of and by itself, the most subtle portion thereof. Their general place of meeting is in the centre, even the centre of the Archeus, that servant of Nature, where coming to mix their several seeds, they agitate and finally expel them to the exterior.


Q. What is the true and the first matter of all metals?
A. The first matter, properly so called, is dual in its essence, or is in itself of a twofold nature; one, nevertheless, cannot create a metal without the concurrence of the other. The first and the palmary essence is an aerial humidity, blended with a warm air, in the form of a fatty water, which adheres to all substances indiscriminately, whether they are pure or impure.


Q. How has this humidity been named by Philosophers?
A. Mercury.


Q. By what is it governed?
A. By the rays of the Sun and Moon.


Q. What is the second matter?
A. The warmth of the earth -otherwise, that dry heat which is termed Sulphur by the Philosophers.


Q. Can the entire material body be converted into seed?
A. Its eight-hundredth part only-that, namely, which is secreted in the centre of the body in question, and may, for example, be seen in a grain of wheat.


Q. Of what use is the bulk of the matter as regards its seed?
A. It is useful as a safeguard against excessive heat, cold, moisture, or aridity, and, in general, all hurtful inclemency, against which it acts as an envelope.


Q. Would those artists who pretend to reduce the whole matter of any body into seed derive any advantage from the process, supposing it were possible to perform it?
A. None; on the contrary, their labour would be wholly unproductive, because nothing that is good can be accomplished by a deviation from natural methods.


Q. What, therefore, should be done?
A. The matter must be effectively separated from its impurities, for there is no metal, how pure soever, which is entirely free from imperfections, though their extent varies. Now all superfluities, cortices, and scoriae must be peeled off and purged out from the matter in order to discover its seed.


Q. What should receive the most careful attention of the Philosopher?
A. Assuredly, the end of Nature, and this is by no means to be looked for in the vulgar metals, because, these having issued already from the hands of the fashioner, it is no longer to be found therein.


Q. For what precise reason?
A. Because the vulgar metals, and chiefly gold, are absolutely dead, while ours, on the contrary, are absolutely living, and possess a soul.


Q. What is the life of metals?
A. It is no other substance than fire, when they are as yet imbedded in the mines.


Q. What is their death?
A. Their life and death are in reality one principle, for they die, as they live, by fire, but their death is from a fire of fusion.


Q. After what manner are metals conceived in the womb of the earth?
A. When the four elements have developed their power or virtue in the centre of the earth, and have deposited their seed, the Archeus of Nature, in the course of a distillatory process, sublimes them superficially by the warmth and energy of the perpetual movement.


Q. Into what does the wind resolve itself when it is distilled through the pores of the earth?
A. It resolves itself into water, whence all things spring; in this state it is merely a humid vapour, out of which there is subsequently evolved the principiated principle of all substances, which also serves as the first matter of the Philosophers.


Q. What then is this principiated principle, which is made use of as the first matter by the Children of Knowledge in the philosophic achievement?
A. It is this identical matter, which, the moment it is conceived, receives a permanent and unchangeable form.


Q. Are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, the Sun, the Moon, etc., separately endowed with individual seed?
A. One is common to them all; their differences are to be accounted for by the: locality from which they are derived, not to speak of the fact that Nature completes her work with far greater rapidity in the procreation of silver than in that of gold, and so of the other metals, each in its own proportion.


Q. How is gold formed in the bowels of the earth?
A. When this vapour, of which we have spoken, is sublimed in the centre of the earth, and when it has passed through warm and pure places, where a certain sulphureous grease adheres to the channels, then this vapour, which the Philosophers have denominated their Mercury, becomes adapted and joined to this grease, which it sublimes with itself; from such amalgamation there is produced a certain unctuousness, which, abandoning the vaporous form, assumes that of grease, and is sublimised in other places, which have been cleansed by this preceding vapour, and the earth whereof has consequently been rendered more subtle, pure, and humid; it fills the pores of this earth, is joined thereto, and gold is produced as a result.


Q. How is Saturn engendered?
A. It occurs when the said unctuosity, or grease, passes through places which are totally impure and cold.


Q. How is Venus brought forth?
A. She is produced in localities where the earth itself is pure, but is mingled with impure sulphur.


Q. What power does the vapour, which we have recently mentioned, possess in the centre of the earth?
A. By its continual progress it has the power of perpetually rarefying whatsoever is crude and impure, and of successively attracting to itself all that is pure around it.


Q. What is the seed of the first matter of all things?
A. The first matter of things, that is to say, the matter of principiating principles is begotten by Nature, without the assistance of any other seed; in other words, Nature receives the matter from the elements, whence it subsequently brings forth the seed.


Q. What, absolutely speaking, is therefore the seed of things?
A. The seed in a body is no other thing than a congealed air, or a humid vapour, which is useless except it be dissolved by a warm vapour.


Q. How is the generation of seed comprised in the metallic kingdom?
A. By the artifice of Archeus the four elements, in the first generation of Nature, distil a ponderous vapour of water into the centre of the earth ; this is the seed of metals, and it is called Mercury, not on account of its essence, but because of its fluidity, and the facility with which it will adhere to each and every thing.


Q. Why is this vapour compared to sulphur?
A. Because of its internal heat.


Q. From what species of Mercury are we to conclude that the metals are composed?
A. The reference is exclusively to the Mercury of the Philosophers, and in no sense to the common or vulgar substance, which cannot become a seed, seeing that, like other metals, it already contains its own seed.


Q. What, therefore, must actually be accepted as the subject of our matter?
A. The seed alone, otherwise the fixed grain, and not the whole body, which is differentiated into Sulphur, or living male, and into Mercury, or living female.


Q. What operation must be afterwards performed
A. They must be joined together, so that they may form a germ, after which they will proceed to the procreation of a fruit which is conformed to their nature.


Q. What is the part of the artist in this operation?
A. The artist must do nothing but separate that which is subtle from that which is gross.


Q. To what, therefore, is the whole philosophic combination reduced?
A. The development of one into two, and the reduction of two into one, and nothing further.


Q. Whither must we turn for the seed and life of meals and minerals?
A. The seed of minerals is properly the water which exists in the centre
And the heart of the minerals.


Q. How does Nature operate by the help of Art?
A. Every seed, whatsoever its kind, is useless, unless by Nature or Art it is placed in a suitable matrix, where it receives its life by the coction of the germ! and by the congelation of the pure particle, or fixed grain.


Q. How is the seed subsequently nourished and preserved?
A. By the warmth of its body.


Q. What is therefore performed by the artist in the mineral kingdom?
A. He finishes what cannot be finished by Nature on account of the crudity of the air, which has permeated the pores of all bodies by its violence, but on the surface and not in the bowels of the earth.


Q. What correspondence have the metals among themselves?
A. It is necessary for a proper comprehension of the nature of this correspondence to consider the position of the planets, and to pay attention to Saturn, which is the highest of all, and then is succeeded by Jupiter, next by Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and, lastly, by the Moon. It must be observed that the influential virtues of the planets do not ascend but descend, and experience teaches us that Mars can be easily converted into Venus, not Venus into Mars, which is of a lower sphere. So, also, Jupiter can be easily transmuted into Mercury, because Jupiter is superior to Mercury, the one being second after the firmament, the other second above the earth, and Saturn is highest of all, while the Moon is lowest. The Sun enters into all, but it is never ameliorated by its inferiors. It is clear that there is a large correspondence between Saturn and the Moon, in the middle of which is the Sun; but to all these changes the Philosopher should strive to administer the Sun.


Q. When the Philosophers speak of gold and silver, from which they extract their matter, are we to suppose that they refer to the vulgar gold and silver?
A. By no means; vulgar silver and gold are dead, while those of the Philosophers are full of life.


Q. What is the object of research among the Philosophers?
A. Proficiency in the art of perfecting what Nature has left imperfect in the mineral kingdom, and the attainment of the treasure of the Philosophical Stone.


Q. What is this Stone?
A. The Stone is nothing else than the radical humidity of the elements, perfectly purified and educed into a sovereign fixation, which causes it to perform such great things for health, life being resident exclusively in the humid radical.


Q. In what does the secret of accomplishing this admirable work consist?
A. It consists in knowing how to educe from potentiality into activity the innate warmth, or the fire of Nature, which is enclosed in the centre of the radical humidity.


Q. What are the precautions which must be made use of to guard against failure in the work?
A. Great pains must be taken to eliminate excrements from the matter, and to conserve nothing but the kernel, which contains all the virtue of the compound.


Q. Why does this medicine heal every species of disease?
A. It is not on account of tile variety of its qualities, but simply because it powerfully fortifies the natural warmth, which it gently stimulates, while other physics irritate it by too violent an action.


Q How can you demonstrate to me the truth of the art in the matter of the tincture?
A. Firstly, its truth is founded on the fact that the physical powder, being composed of the same substance as the metals, namely, quicksilver, has the faculty of combining with these in fusion, one nature easily embracing another which is like itself. Secondly, seeing that the imperfection of the base metals is owing to the crudeness of their quicksilver, and to that alone, the physical powder, which is a ripe and decocted quicksilver, and, in itself a pure fire, can easily communicate to them its own maturity, and can transmute them into its nature, after it has attracted their crude humidity, that is to say, their quicksilver, which is the sole substance that transmutes them, the rest being nothing but scoriae and excrements, which are rejected in projection.


Q. What road should the Philosopher follow that he may attain to the knowledge and execution of the physical work?
A. That precisely which was followed by the Great Architect of the Universe in the creation of the world, by observing how the chaos was evolved.


Q. What was the matter of the chaos?
A. It could be nothing else than a humid vapour, because water alone enters into all created substances, which all finish in a strange term, this term being a proper subject for the impression of all forms.


Q. Give me an example to illustrate what you have just stated.
A. An example may be found in the special productions of composite substances, the seeds of which invariably begin by resolving themselves into a certain humour, which is the chaos of the particular matter, whence issues, by a kind of irradiation, the complete form of the plant. Moreover, it should be observed that Holy Scripture makes no mention of anything except water as the material subject whereupon the Spirit of God brooded, nor of anything except light as the universal form of things.


Q. What profit may the Philosopher derive from these considerations, and what should he especially remark in the method of creation which was pursued by the Supreme Being?
A. In the first place he should observe the matter out of which the world was made; he will see that out of this confused mass, the Sovereign Artist began by extracting light, that this light in the same moment dissolved the darkness which covered the face of the earth, and that it served as the universal form of the matter. He will then easily perceive that in the generation of all composite substances, a species of irradiation takes place, and a separation of light and darkness, wherein Nature is an undeviating copyist of her Creator. The Philosopher will equally understand after what manner, by the action of this light, the empyrean, or firmament which divides the superior and inferior waters, was subsequently produced; how the sky was studded with luminous bodies; and how the necessity for the moon arose, which was owing to the space intervening between the things above and the things below; for the moon is an intermediate torch between the superior and the inferior worlds, receiving the celestial influences and communicating them to the earth. Finally he will understand how the Creator, in the gathering of the waters, produced dry land.


Q. How many heavens can you enumerate?
A. Properly there is one only, which is the firmament that divides the waters from the waters. Nevertheless, three are admitted, of which the first is the space that is above the clouds. In this heaven the waters are rarefied, and fall upon the fixed stars, and it is also in this space that the planets and wandering stars perform their revolutions. The second heaven is the firmament of the fixed stars, while the third is the abode of the supercelestial waters.


Q. Why is the rarefaction of the waters confined to the first heaven?
A. Because it is in the nature of rarefied substances to ascend, and because God, in His eternal laws, has assigned its proper sphere to everything.


Q. Why does each celestial body invariably revolve about an axis?
A. It is by reason of the primeval impetus which it received, and by virtue of the same law which will cause any heavy substance suspended from a thread to turn with the same velocity, if the power which impels its motion be always equal.


Q. Why do the superior waters never descend?
A. Because of their extreme rarefaction. It is for this reason that a skilled chemist can derive more profit from the study of rarefaction than from any other science whatsoever.


Q. What is the matter of the firmament?
A. It is properly air, which is more suitable than water as a medium of light.


Q. After the separation of the waters from the dry earth, what was performed by the Creator to originate generation?
A. He created a certain light which was destined for this office; He placed it in the central fire, and moderated this fire by the humidity of water and by the coldness of earth, so as to keep a check upon its energy and adapt it to His design.


Q. What is the action of this central fire?
A. It continually operates upon the nearest humid matter, which it exalts into vapour; now this vapour is the mercury of Nature and the first matter of the three kingdoms.


Q. How is the sulphur of Nature subsequently formed?
A. By the interaction of the central fire and the mercurial vapour.


Q. How is the salt of the sea produced?
A. By the action of the same fire upon aqueous humidity, when the aerial humidity, which is contained therein, has been exhaled.


Q. What should be done by a truly wise Philosopher when he has once mastered the foundation and the order in the procedure of the Great Architect of the Universe in the construction of all that exists in Nature?
A. He should, as far as may be possible, become a faithful copyist of his Creator. In the physical chaos he should make his chaos such as the original actually was; he should separate the light from the darkness : he should form his firmament for the separation of the waters which are above from the waters which are below, and should successively accomplish, point by point, the entire sequence of the creative act.


Q. With what is this grand and sublime operation performed?
A. With one single corpuscle, or minute body, which, so to speak, contains nothing but faeces, filth, and abominations, but whence a certain tenebrous and mercurial humidity is extracted, which contains in itself all that is required by the Philosopher, because, as a fact, he is in search of nothing hut the true Mercury.


Q. What kind of mercury, therefore, must he make use of in performing the work?

A. Of a mercury which, as such, is not found on the earth, but is extracted from bodies, yet not from vulgar mercury, as it has been falsely said.


Q. Why is the latter unfitted to the needs of our work?
A. Because the wise artist must take notice that vulgar mercury has an insufficient quantity of sulphur, and he should consequently operate upon a body created by Nature, in which Nature herself has united the sulphur and mercury that it is the work of the artist to separate.


Q. What must he subsequently do?
A. He must purify them and join them anew together.


Q. How do you denominate the body of which we have been speaking?
A. The RUDE STONE, Or Chaos, or Iliaste, or Hyle--that confused mass which is known but universally despised.


Q. As you have told me that Mercury is the one thing which the Philosopher must absolutely understand, will you give me a circumstantial description of it, so as to avoid misconception?
A. In respect of its nature, our Mercury is dual--fixed and volatile; in regard to its motion, it is also dual, for it has a motion of ascent and of descent; by that of descent, it is the influence of plants, by which it stimulates the drooping fire of Nature, and this is its first office previous to congelation. By its ascensional movement, it rises, seeking to be purified, and as this is after congelation, it is considered to be the radical moisture of substances, which, beneath its vile scoriae, still preserves the nobility of its first origin.


Q. How many species of moisture do you suppose to be in each composite thing?
A. There are three--the Elementary, which is properly the vase of the other elements; the Radical, which, accurately speaking, is the oil, or balm, in which the entire virtue of the subject is resident--lastly, the Alimentary, the true natural dissolvent, which draws up the drooping internal fire, causing corruption and blackness by its humidity, and fostering and sustaining the subject.


Q. How many species of Mercury are there known to the Philosophers?
A. The Mercury of the Philosophers may be regarded under four aspects; the first is entitled the Mercury of bodies, which is actually their concealed seed; the second is the Mercury of Nature, which is the Bath or Vase of the Philosophers, otherwise the humid radical; to the third has been applied the designation, Mercury of the Philosophers, because it is found in their laboratory and in their minera. It is the sphere of Saturn; it is the Diana of the Wise; it is the true salt of metals, after the acquisition of which the true philosophic work may be truly said to have begun. In its fourth aspect, it is called Common Mercury, which yet is not that of the Vulgar, but rather is properly the true air of the Philosophers, the true middle substance of water, the true secret and concealed fire, called also common fire, because it is common to all minerae, for it is the substance of metals, and thence do they derive their quantity and quality.


Q. How many operations art comprised in our work?
A. There is one only, which may be resolved into sublimation, and sublimation, according to Geber, is nothing other than the elevation of the dry matter by the mediation of fire, with adherence to its own vase.


Q. What precaution should be taken in reading the Hermetic Philosophers ?
A. Great care, above all, must be observed upon this point, lest what they say upon the subject should be interpreted literally and in accordance with the mere sound of the words: For the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.


Q. What books should be read in order to have an acquaintance with our science?
A. Among the ancients, all the works of Hermes should especially be studied; in the next place, a certain book, entitled The Passage of the Red Sea, and another, The Entrance into the Promised Land. Paracelsus also should be read before all among elder writers, and, among other treatises, his Chemical Pathway, or the Manual of Paracelsus, which contains all the mysteries of demonstrative physics and the most arcane Kabbalah. This rare and unique manuscript work exists only in the Vatican Library, but Sendivogius had the good fortune to take a copy of it, which has helped in the illumination of the sages of our order. Secondly, Raymond Lully must be read, and his Vade Mecum above all, his dialogue called the Tree of Life, his testament, and his codicil. There must, however, be a certain precaution exercised in respect to the two last, because, like those of Geber, and also of Arnold de Villanova, they abound in false recipes and futile fictions, which seem to have been inserted with the object of more effectually disguising the truth from the ignorant. In the third place, the Turba Philosophorum which is a collection of ancient authors, contains much that is materially good, though there is much also which is valueless. Among mediaeval writers Zachary, Trevisan, Roger Bacon, and a certain anonymous author, whose book is entitled The Philosophers, should be held especially high in the estimation of the student. Among moderns the most worthy to be prized are John Fabricius, Francois de Nation, and Jean D'Espagnet, who wrote Physics Restored, though, to say the truth, he has imported some false precepts and fallacious opinions into his treatise.


Q. When may the Philosopher venture to undertake the work?
A. When he is, theoretically, able to extract, by means of a crude spirit, a digested spirit out of a body in dissolution, which digested spirit he must again rejoin to the vital oil.


Q. Explain me this theory in a clearer manner.
A. It may be demonstrated more completely in the actual process; the great experiment may be undertaken when the Philosopher, by the medium of a vegetable menstruurn, united to a mineral menstruum, is qualified to dissolve a third essential menstruum, with which menstruums united he must wash the earth, and then exalt it into a celestial quintessence, to compose the sulphureous thunderbolt, which instantaneously penetrates substances and destroys their excrements.


Q. Have those persons a proper acquaintance with Nature who pretend to make use of vulgar gold for seed, and of vulgar mercury for the dissolvent, or the earth in which it should be sown?
A. Assuredly not, because neither the one nor the other possesses the external agent--gold, because it has been deprived of it by decoction, and mercury because it has never had it.


Q. In seeking this auriferous seed elsewhere than in gold itself, is there no danger of producing a species of monster, since one appears to be departing from Nature?
A. It is undoubtedly true that in gold is contained the auriferous seed, and that in a more perfect condition than it is found in any other body; but this does not force us to make use of vulgar gold, for such a seed is equally found in each of the other metals, and is nothing else but that fixed grain which Nature has infused in the first congelation of mercury, all metals having one origin and a common substance, as will be ultimately unveiled to those who become worthy of receiving it by application and assiduous study.


Q. What follows from this doctrine?
A. It follows that, although the seed is more perfect in gold, it may be extracted much more easily from another body than from gold itself, other bodies being more open, that is to say, less digested, and less restricted in their humidity.


Q. Give me an example taken from Nature.
A. Vulgar gold may be likened to a fruit which, having come to a perfect maturity, has been cut off from its tree, and though it contains a most perfect and well-digested seed, notwithstanding, should anyone set it in the ground, with a view to its multiplication, much time, trouble, and attention will be consumed in the development of its vegetative capabilities. On the other hand, if a cutting, or a root, be taken from the same tree, and similarly planted, in a short time, and with no trouble, it will spring up and produce much fruit.


Q. Is it necessary that an amateur of this science should understand the formation of metals in the bowels of the earth if he wishes to complete his work ?
A. So indispensable is such a knowledge that should anyone fail, before all other studies, to apply himself to its attainment, and to imitate Nature point by point therein, he will never succeed in accomplishing anything but what is worthless.


Q. How, then, does Nature deposit metals in the bowels of the earth, and of what does she compose them ?
A. Nature manufactures them all out of sulphur and mercury, and forms them by their double vapour.


Q. What do you mean by this double vapour, and how can metals be formed thereby?
A. In order to a complete understanding of this question, it must first be stated that mercurial vapour is united to sulphureous vapour in a cavernous place which contains a saline water, which serves as their matrix. Thus is formed, firstly, the Vitriol of Nature; secondly, by the commotion of the elements, there is developed out of this Vitriol of Nature a new vapour, which is neither mercurial nor sulphureous, yet is allied to both these natures, and this, passing through places to which the grease of sulphur adheres, is joined therewith, and out of their union a glutinous substance is produced, otherwise, a formless mass, which is permeated by the vapour that fills these cavernous places. By this vapour, acting through the sulphur it contains, are produced the perfect metals, provided that the vapour and the locality are pure. If the locality and the vapour are impure, imperfect metals result. The terms perfection and imperfection have reference to various degrees of concoction.


Q. What is contained in this vapour?
A. A spirit of light and a spirit of fire, of the nature of the celestial bodies, which properly should be considered as the form of the universe.


Q. What does this vapour represent?
A. This vapour, thus impregnated by the universal spirit, represents, in a fairly complete way, the original Chaos, which contained all that was required for the original creation, that is, universal matter and universal form.


Q. And one cannot, notwithstanding, make use of vulgar mercury in the process?
A. No, because vulgar mercury, as already made plain, is devoid of external agent.


Q. Whence comes it that common mercury is without its external agent?
A. Because in the exaltation of the double vapour, the commotion has been so great and searching, that the spirit, or agent, has evaporated, as occurs, with very close similarity, in the fusion of metals. The result is that the unique mercurial part is deprived of its masculine or sulphureous agent, and consequently can never be transmuted into gold by Nature.


Q. How many species of gold are distinguished by the Philosophers?
A. Three sorts :--Astral Gold, Elementary Gold, and Vulgar Gold.


Q. What is astral gold?
A. Astral Gold has its centre in the sun, which communicates it by its rays to all inferior beings. It is an igneous substance, which receives a continual emanation of solar corpuscles that penetrate all things sentient, vegetable, and mineral.


Q. What do you refer to under the term Elementary Gold ?
A. This is the most pure and fixed portion of the elements, and of all that is composed of them. All sublunary beings included in the three kingdoms contain in their inmost centre a precious grain of this elementary gold.


Q. Give me some description of Vulgar Gold ?
A. It is the most beautiful metal of our acquaintance, the best that Nature can produce, as perfect as it is unalterable in itself.


Q. Of what species of gold is the Stone of the Philosophers ?
A. It is of the second species, as being the most pure portion of all the metallic elements after its purification, when it is termed living philosophical gold. A perfect equilibrium and equality of the four elements enter into the Physical Stone, and four things are indispensable for the accomplishment of the work, namely, composition, allocation, mixture, and union, which, once performed according to the rules of art, will beget the lawful Son of the Sun, and the Phoenix which eternally rises out of its own ashes.


Q. What is actually the living gold of the Philosophers?
A. It is exclusively the fire of Mercury, or that igneous virtue, contained in the radical moisture, to which it has already communicated the fixity and the nature of the sulphur, whence it has emanated, the mercurial character of the whole substance of philosophical sulphur permitting it to be alternatively termed mercury.


Q. What other name is also given by the Philosophers to their living gold ?
A. They also term it their living sulphur, and their true fire; they recognize its existence in all bodies, and there is nothing that can subsist without it.


Q. Where must we look for our living gold, our living sulphur, and our true fire ?
A. In the house of Mercury.


Q. By what is this fire nourished?
A. By the air.


Q. Give me a comparative illustration of the power of this fire ?
A. To exemplify the attraction of this interior fire, there is no better comparison than that which is derived from the thunderbolt, which originally is simply a dry, terrestrial exhalation, united to a humid vapour. By exaltation, and by assuming the igneous nature, it acts on the humidity which is inherent to it; this it attracts to itself, transmutes it into its own nature, and then rapidly precipitates itself to the earth, where it is attracted by a fixed nature which is like unto its own.


Q. What should be done by the Philosopher after he has extracted his Mercury ?
A. He should develop it from potentiality into activity.


Q. Cannot Nature perform this of herself?
A. No; because she stops short after the first sublimation, and out of the matter which is thus disposed do the metals engender.


Q. What do the Philosophers understand by their gold and silver?
A. The Philosophers apply to their Sulphur the name of Gold, and to their Mercury the name of Silver.


Q. Whence are they derived?
A. I have already stated that they are derived from a homogeneous body wherein they are found in great abundance, whence also Philosophers know how to extract both by an admirable, and entirely philosophical, process.


Q. When this operation has been duly performed, to what other point of the practice must they next apply themselves?
A. To the confection of the philosophical amalgam, which must be done with great care, but can only be accomplished after the preparation and sublimation of the Mercury.


Q. When should your matter be combined with the living gold?
A. During the period of amalgamation only, that is to say, Sulphur is introduced into it by means of the amalgamation, and thenceforth there is one substance; the process is shortened by the addition of Sulphur, while the tincture at the same time is augmented.


Q. What is contained in the centre of the radical moisture ?
A. It contains and conceals Sulphur, which is covered with a hard rind.


Q. What must be done to apply it to the Great Work?
A. It must be drawn, out of its bonds with consummate skill, and by the method of putrefaction.


Q. Does Nature, in her work in the mines, possess a menstruum which is adapted to the dissolution and liberation of this sulphur?
A. No; because there is no local movement. Could Nature, unassisted, dissolve, putrefy, and purify the metallic body, she would herself provide us with !he Physical Stone, which is Sulphur exalted and increased in virtue.


Q. Can you elucidate this doctrine by an example?
A. By an enlargement of the previous comparison of a fruit, or a seed, which, in the first place, is put into the earth for its solution, and afterwards for its multiplication. Now, the Philosopher, who is in a position to discern what is good seed, extracts it from its centre, consigns it to its proper earth, when it has been well cured and prepared, and therein he rarefies it in such a manner that its prolific virtue is increased and indefinitely multiplied.


Q. In what does the whole secret of the seed consist ?
A. In the true knowledge of its proper earth.


Q. What do you understand by the seed in the work Of the Philosophers ?
A. I understand the interior heat, or the specific spirit, which is enclosed in the humid radical, which, in other words, is the middle substance of living silver, the proper sperm of metals, which contains its own seed.


Q. How do you set free the sulphur from its bonds?
A. By putrefaction.


Q. What is the earth of minerals ?
A. It is their proper menstruum.


Q. What pains must be taken by the Philosopher to extract that part which he requires?
A. He must take great pains to eliminate the fetid vapours and impure sulphurs, after which the seed must be injected.


Q. By what indication may the Artist be assured that he is in the right road at the beginning of his work?
A. When he finds that the dissolvent and the thing dissolved are converted into one form and one matter at the period of dissolution.


Q. How many solutions do you count in the Philosophic Work?
A. There are three. The first solution is that which reduces the crude and metallic body into its elements of sulphur and of living silver; the second is that of the physical body, and the third is the solution of the mineral earth.


Q. How is the metallic body reduced by the first solution into mercury, and then into sulphur?
A. By the secret artificial fire, which is the Burning Star.


Q. How is this operation performed?
A. By extracting from the subject, in the first place, the mercury or vapour of the elements, and, after purification, by using it to liberate the sulphur from its bonds, by corruption, of which blackness is the indication.


Q. How is the second solution performed ?
A. When the physical body is resolved into the two substances previously mentioned, and has acquired the celestial nature.


Q. What is the name which is applied by Philosophers to the Matter during this period?
A, It is called their Physical Chaos, and it is, in fact, the true First Matter, a name which can hardly be applied before the conjunction of the male--which is sulphur--with the female--which is silver.


Q. To what does the third solution refer?
A. It is the humectation of the mineral earth and it is closely bound up with multiplication.


Q. What fire must be made use of in our work ?
A. That fire which is used by Nature.


Q. What is the potency of this fire?
A. It dissolves everything that is in the world, because it is the principle of all dissolution and corruption.


Q. Why is it also termed Mercury ?
A. Because it is in its nature aerial, and a most subtle vapour, which partakes at the same time of sulphur, whence it has contracted some contamination.


Q. Where is this fire concealed ?
A. It is concealed in the subject of art.


Q. Who is it that is familiar with, and can produce, this fire?
A. It is known to the wise, who can both produce it and purify it.


Q. What is the essential potency and characteristic of this fire ?
A. It is excessively dry, and is continually in motion; it seeks only to disintegrate and to educe things from potentiality into actuality; it is that, in a word, which coming upon solid places in mines, circulates in a vaporous form upon the matter, and dissolves it.


Q. How may this fire be most easily distinguished?
A. By the sulphureous excrements in which it is enveloped, and by the saline environment with which it is clothed.


Q. What must be added to this fire so as to accentuate its capacity for incineration in the feminine species?
A. On account of its extreme dryness it requires to be moistened.


Q. How many philosophical fires do you enumerate ?
A. There are in all three--the natural, the unnatural, and the contra-natural.


Q. Explain to me these three species of fires.
A. The natural fire is the masculine fire, or the chief agent; the unnatural is the feminine, which is the dissolvent of Nature, nourishing a white smoke, and assuming that form. This smoke is quickly dissipated, unless much care be exercised, and it is almost incombustible, though by philosophical sublimation it becomes corporeal and resplendent. The contra-natural fire is that which disintegrates compounds and has the power to unbind what has' been bound very closely by Nature.


Q. Where is our matter to be found?
A. It is to be found everywhere, but it must specially be sought in metallic nature, where it is more easily available than elsewhere.


Q. What kind must be preferred before all others ?
A. The most mature, the most appropriate, and the easiest; but care, before all things, must be taken that the metallic essence shall be present, not only potentially but in actuality, and that there is, moreover, a metallic splendour.


Q. Is everything contained in this subject?
A. Yes; but Nature, at the same time, must be assisted, so that the work may be perfected and hastened, and this by the means which are familiar to the higher grades of experiment.


Q. Is this subject exceedingly precious ?
A. It is vile, and originally is without native elegance; should anyone say that it is saleable, it is the species to which they refer, but, fundamentally, it is not saleable, because it is useful in our work alone.


Q. What does our Matter contain?
A. It contains Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury.


Q. What operation is it most important to be able to perform?
A. The successive extraction of the Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury.


Q. How is that done ?
A. By sole and perfect sublimation.


Q. What is in the first place extracted ?
A. Mercury in the form of a white smoke.


Q. What follows?
A. Igneous water, or Sulphur.


Q. What then?
A. Dissolution with purified salt, in the first place volatilising that which is fixed, and afterwards fixing that which is volatile into a precious earth, which is the Vase of the Philosophers, and is wholly perfect.


Q. When must the Philosopher begin his enterprise ?
A. At the moment of daybreak, for his energy must never be relaxed.


Q. When may he take his rest?
A. When the work has come to its perfection.


Q. At what hour is the end of the work ?
A. High noon, that is to say, the moment when the Sun is in its fullest power, and the Son of the Day-Star in its most brilliant splendour.


Q. What is the pass-word of Magnesia?
A. You know whether I can or should answer:--I reserve my speech.


Q. Give me the greeting of the Philosophers.
A. Begin ; I will reply to you.


Q. Are you an apprentice Philosopher?
A. My friends, and the wise, know me.


Q. What is the age of a Philosopher ?
A. From the moment of his researches to that of his discoveries, the Philosopher does not age.



The Treasure of Treasures for Alchemists

NATURE begets a mineral in the bowels of the earth. There are two kinds of it, which are found in many districts of Europe. The best which has been offered to me, which also has been found genuine in experimentation, is externally in the figure of the greater world, and is in the eastern part of the sphere of the Sun. The other, in the Southern Star, is now in its first efflorescence. The bowels of the earth thrust this forth through its surface. It is found red in its first coagulation, and in it lie hid all the flowers and colours of the minerals. Much has been written about it by the philosophers, for it is of a cold and moist nature, and agrees with the element of water.

So far as relates to the knowledge of it and experiment with it, all the philosophers before me, though they have aimed at it with their missiles, have gone very wide of the mark. They believed that Mercury and Sulphur were the mother of all metals, never even dreaming of making mention meanwhile of a third; and yet when the water is separated from it by Spagyric Art the truth is plainly revealed, though it was unknown to Galen or to Avicenna. But if, for the sake of our excellent physicians, we had to describe only the name, the composition; the dissolution, and coagulation, as in the beginning of the world Nature proceeds with all growing things, a whole year would scarcely suffice me, and, in order to explain these things, not even the skins of numerous cows would be adequate.


Now, I assert that in this mineral are found three principles, which are Mercury, Sulphur, and the Mineral Water which has served to naturally coagulate it. Spagyric science is able to extract this last from its proper juice when it is not altogether matured, in the middle of the autumn, just like a pear from a tree. The tree potentially contains the pear. If the Celestial Stars and Nature agree , the tree first of all puts forth shoots in the month of March; then it thrusts out buds, and when these open the flower appears, and so on in due order until in autumn the pear grows ripe. So is it with the minerals. These are born, in like manner, in the bowels of the earth. Let the Alchemists who are seeking the Treasure of Treasures carefully note this. I will shew them the way, its beginning, its middle, and its end. In the following treatise I will describe the proper Water, the proper Sulphur, and the proper Balm thereof. By means of these three the resolution and composition are coagulated into one.


CONCERNING THE SULPHUR OF CINNABAR.


Take mineral Cinnabar and prepare it in the following manner. Cook it with rain water in a stone vessel for three hours. Then purify it carefully, and dissolve it in Aqua Regis, which is composed of equal parts of vitriol, nitre, and sal ammoniac. Another formula is vitriol, saltpetre, alum, and common salt.

Distil this in an alembic. Pour it on again, and separate carefully the pure from the impure thus. Let it putrefy for a month in horse-dung; then separate the elements in the following manner. If it puts forth its sign1, commence the distillation by means of an alembic with a fire of the first degree. The water and the air will ascend; the fire and the earth will remain at the bottom. Afterwards join them again, and gradually treat with the ashes. So the water and the air will again ascend first, and afterwards the element of fire, which expert artists recognise. The earth will remain in the bottom of the vessel. This collect there. It is what many seek after and few find.


This dead earth in the reverberatory you will prepare according to the rules of Art, and afterwards add fire of the first degree for five days and nights. When these have elapsed you must apply the second degree for the same number of days and nights, and proceed according to Art with the material enclosed. At length you will find a volatile salt, like a thin alkali, containing in itself the Astrum of fire and earth2. Mix this with the two elements that have been preserved, the water and the earth. Again place it on the ashes for eight days and eight nights, and you will find that which has been neglected by many Artists. Separate this according to your experience, and according to the rules of the Spagyric Art, and you will have a white earth, from which its colour has been extracted. Join the element of fire and salt to the alkalised earth. Digest in a pelican to extract the essence. Then a new earth will be deposited, which put aside.


CONCERNING THE RED LION.


Afterwards take the lion in the pelican which also is found [at] first, when you see its tincture, that is to say, the element of fire which stands above the water, the air, and the earth. Separate it from its deposit by trituration. Thus you will have the true aurum potabile3. Sweeten this with the alcohol of wine poured over it, and then distil in an alembic until you perceive no acidity to remain in the Aqua Regia.

This Oil of the Sun, enclosed in a retort hermetically sealed, you must place for elevation that it may be exalted and doubled in its degree. Then put the vessel, still closely shut, in a cool place. Thus it will not be dissolved, but coagulated. Place it again for elevation and coagulation, and repeat this three times. Thus will be produced the Tincture of the Sun, perfect in its degree. Keep this in its own place.


CONCERNING THE GREEN LION.


Take the vitriol of Venus4, carefully prepared according to the rules of Spagyric Art; and add thereto the elements of water and air which you have reserved. Resolve, and set to putrefy for a month according to instructions. When the putrefaction is finished, you will behold the sign of the elements. Separate, and you will soon see two colours, namely, white and red. The red is above the white. The red tincture of the vitriol is so powerful that it reddens all white bodies, and whitens all red ones, which is wonderful.

Work upon this tincture by means of a retort, and you will perceive a blackness issue forth. Treat it again by means of the retort, repeating the operation until it comes out whitish. Go on, and do not despair of the work. Rectify until you find the true, clear Green Lion, which you will recognise by its great weight. You will see that it is heavy and large. This is the Tincture, transparent gold. You will see marvellous signs of this Green Lion, such as could be bought by no treasures of the Roman Leo. Happy he who has learnt how to find it and use it for a tincture!

This is the true and genuine Balsam5, the Balsam of the Heavenly Stars, suffering no bodies to decay, nor allowing leprosy, gout, or dropsy to take root. It is given in a dose of one grain, if it has been fermented with Sulphur of Gold.


Ah, Charles the German, where is your treasure? Where are your philosophers? Where your doctors? Where are your decocters of woods, who at least purge and relax? Is your heaven reversed? Have your stars wandered out of their course, and are they straying in another orbit, away from the line of limitation, since your eyes are smitten with blindness, as by a carbuncle, and other things making a show of ornament, beauty, and pomp? If your artists only knew that their prince Galen - they call none like him - was sticking in hell, from whence he has sent letters to me, they would make the sign of the cross upon themselves with a fox's tail. In the same way your Avicenna sits in the vestibule of the infernal portal; and I have disputed with him about his aurum potabile, his Tincture of the Philosophers, his Quintessence, and Philosophers' Stone, his Mithridatic, his Theriac, and all the rest. O, you hypocrites, who despise the truths taught you by a true physician, who is himself instructed by Nature, and is a son of God himself! Come, then, and listen, impostors who prevail only by the authority of your high positions! After my death, my disciples will burst forth and drag you to the light, and shall expose your dirty drugs, wherewith up to this time you have compassed the death of princes, and the most invincible magnates of the Christian world. Woe for your necks in the day of judgment! I know that the monarchy will be mine. Mine, too, will be the honour and glory. Not that I praise myself: Nature praises me. Of her I am born; her I follow. She knows me, and I know her. The light which is in her I have beheld in her; outside, too, I have proved the same in the figure of the microcosm, and found it in that universe.


But I must proceed with my design in order to satisfy my disciples to the full extent of their wish. I willingly do this for them, if only skilled in the light of Nature and thoroughly practised in astral matters, they finally become adepts in philosophy, which enables them to know the nature of every kind of water.

Take, then, of this liquid of the minerals which I have described, four parts by weight; of the Earth of red Sol two parts; of Sulphur of Sol one part. Put these together into a pelican, congelate, and dissolve them three times. Thus you will have the Tincture of the Alchemists. We have not here described its weight: but this is given in the book on Transmutations6.

So, now, he who has one to a thousand ounces of the Astrum Solis shall also tinge his own body of Sol.


If you have the Astrum of Mercury, in the same manner, you will tinge the whole body of common Mercury. If you have the Astrum of Venus you will, in like manner, tinge the whole body of Venus, and change it into the best metal. These facts have all been proved. The same must also be understood as to the Astra of the other planets, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Luna, and the rest. For tinctures are also prepared from these: concerning which we now make no mention in this place, because we have already dwelt at sufficient length upon them in the book on the Nature of Things and in the Archidoxies. So, too, the first entity of metals and terrestrial minerals have been made, sufficiently clear for Alchemists to enable them to get the Alchemists' Tincture.


This work, the Tincture of the Alchemists, need not be one of nine months; but quickly, and without any delay, you may go on by the Spaygric Art of the Alchemists, and, in the space of forty days, you can fix this alchemical substance, exalt it, putrefy it, ferment it, coagulate it into a stone, and produce the Alchemical Phoenix7. But it should be noted well that the Sulphur of Cinnabar becomes the Flying Eagle, whose wings fly away without wind, and carry the body of the phoenix to the nest of the parent, where it is nourished by the element of fire, and the young ones dig out its eyes: from whence there emerges a whiteness, divided in its sphere, into a sphere and life out of its own heart, by the balsam of its inward parts, according to the property of the cabalists.

 

HERE ENDS THE TREASURE OF THE ALCHEMISTS.



The Treasure of Treasures for Alchemists by Paracelsus

THE KABALAH ON NUMBERS

Many nations of antiquity made use of the letters of their alphabets as substitutes for any independent signs to typify numerical conceptions. It is with the Hebrew letters as numerals that we are chiefly concerned, and to a smaller extent with the Greek. Ancient records show that the Greeks used their numbers almost exclusively for everyday purposes; while the Jewish Rabbis added to their practical value special peculiar purposes, and looked to them to furnish deeper views of nature, existence and doctrine. No doubt can exist that the ancient Egyptians were fully aware of the wondrous mysteries which numbers are able to disclose, so, considering that Greece, and neither Judea nor Babylon, succeeded to the empires of ancient Egypt, it is a curious fact how little knowledge of the dogmas of the Hierophants of Sais, Memphis and Thebes Greek literature has transmitted to us.

The Jewish Rabbis discovered so much of interest and importance behind the merely superficial value of numbers, and of words as their representatives, that they gradually developed a complete science of numerical conceptions apart from mathematics; this took the name of Kabalah or Qabalah, Cabbala, or even Cabala, words variously misspelt from Qblh—the Received doctrine, from the root Qbl, meaning to Receive.


The Greeks as aforesaid did not develop nor use their letters as numbers for mental conceptions, yet in the Middle Ages we often find Greek letters used to transliterate Hebrew similars, and so there was formed a bastard Greek Kabalah on the Hebrew type.

It must be constantly borne in mind that all Hebrew words or numbers are read from right to left, or the reverse of English words; but in their English transliteration they are here in English order.

The corresponding numerals, Greek and Hebrew letters, are here given with their English names, and the English synonymous letters are also added.


A              B           G              D           H        U or V         Z

Aleph       Beth      Gimel       Daleth    Heh      Vau           Zain

‏ע‎              ‏ב‎           ‏           ג‎    ‏ד‎           ‏ה‎          ‏ו‎                 ‏ז‎

1               2           3               4           5          6                7

Alpha       Beta      Gamma      Delta    Epsilon Episemon   Zeta

α               β          γ                δ           ε          ς                ζ


Ch            Th         Y or I or J   K          L            M              N

Heth         Teth      Yod            Kaph    Lamed    Mem         Nun

‏ח‎              ‏ט‎           ‏י‎                 ‏כ‎          ‏ל‎            ‏מ‎              ‏נ‎

8               9           10               20        30          40            50

Eta            Theta    Iota           Kappa   Lambda  Mu           Nu

ε                θ          ι                 κ          λ             μ              ν


S                O             P              Tz          Q            R

Samekh      Ayin        Peh          Tzaddi   Qoph      Resh

‏ס‎                ‏ע‎             ‏פ‎              ‏צ‎            ‏ק‎           ‏ר‎

60               70           80            90          100         200

Xi              Omicron   Pi             Koppa    Rho        Sigma

ξ                 ο             π              ϙ         σ or σ


Sh               T            K                  M                   N

Shin            Tau        Final Kaph   Final Mem      Final Nun

‏ש‎                ‏ת‎            ‏ך‎                  ‏ם‎                    ‏ן‎

300             400        500              600                 700

Tau           Upsilon    Phi               Chi                 Psi

τ                υ             φ                  χ                     ψ


P                 Tz

Final Peh    Final Tzaddi Dotted

                                       Aleph 

800             900               1000

Omega        Sanpi            Alpha

                                       dashed

ω                Ϡ                   ᾳ


Note that there were no proper Greek Letters for 6, 90, and 900, so they used special symbols—episemon (vau, or bau, digamma) for 6; koppa for 90; and sanpi for 900—ς ϙ Ϡ).

At some periods the five finals were not used for the hundreds, but instead Tau was written for 400 and other hundreds added; thus 500 was TQ. Another point of importance is that the Jews never write JH Jah for 15, because it is a Deity title, they use instead 9, 6 thus TV, teth vau. The Kabalists used JH only when they desired to call attention to the Holy Name in the number.

In certain Kabalistic numerical computations many Rabbis deemed it permissible to add an Aleph, one, and this they called the Colel.

In some cases we find the Greeks to have used their letters in direct order for purposes of numeration, as may be seen in some copies of very old poems (the 24 books of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, for example), in which the stanzas bear the letters consecutively, in a similar manner to the Hebrew letters heading the portions of the 119th Psalm in our Bibles.


The word Kabalah includes the Hebrew Doctrines of Cosmogony and Theology as well as the Science of Numbers. The former is specified as the Dogmatic Kabalah, the latter as the Literal Kabalah.

By means of associating the ancient doctrines of Numbers with the letters of the alphabet, the Planets, Stars, Zodiacal signs and other astronomical terms, a form of divination became practised, by which the professors attempted to foretell the future, life and death, good and evil Fortune, detection of theft, etc., an ample explanation of which may be studied by the curious in the "Holy Guide" of John Heydon.

With this system is associated the practice of pure Astrology, the divination of Fate by means of the Heavenly bodies, especially the formation of the so-called Horoscopes—schemes of the arrangement of the Planets at the moment of Birth, from which all the important phases of the life can be inferred—by some few persons. The Kabalah became a means of handing down from one generation to another hidden truths, religious notions, secrets of nature, ideas of Cosmogony, and facts of history, in a form which was unintelligible to the uninitiated; and the revealing of the secrets, and the methods of interpretation were veiled in mystery, and only to be approached through Religion.

The more practical part of the system was involved in the three processes of:—

Gematria, Notaricon, and Temura.


Gematria, a method depending on the fact that each Hebrew letter had a numerical value. When the sum of the numbers of the letters composing a word was the same as the sum of the letters of another word, however different, they perceived an analogy between them, and considered them to have a necessary connection. Thus certain numbers got to be well known as meaning certain things; and not words only, but sentences were treated in this manner; thus, as an example referring to Genesis xviii. v. 2, we find the words, "and lo, three men," Vehennah, shalisha, Vhnh Shlshh; this set down in numbers becomes 6, 5, 50, 5, 300, 30, 300, 5, which amount to 701: now the words, "these are Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael," "Alu Mikhael Gabriel ve Raphael," ALU MIKAL GBRIAL V RPAL converted are, 1, 30, 6, 40, 10, 20, 1, 30, 3, 2, 200, 10, 1, 30, 6, 200, 80, 1, 30, also amounting to 701, and the Rabbis argued that these two sets of three beings were identical. Some Christian Kabalists point out that in Genesis xlix. v. 10 we find "Yebah Shiloh," YBA SHILH, "Shiloh shall come," which amount to 358; and that the word "Messiah," MShVCh is 40, 300, to, 8, or 358; but so is also Nachash, the Serpent of Moses, NChSh, 50, 8, 300; and I must remark that the claim to translate ShILh, or, as some ancient Hebrew MSS. write it, ShLh, by "Shiloh," in the sense of Jesus Christ, is far-fetched. The word is simply "rest," or "peace," in its simplest meaning, but also is the Scorpio of the Chaldean zodiac (related to Nachash, serpent); and "Judah," of whom Jacob is talking in the prophecy, is the sign of the zodiac; Leo for "Judah is a lion's whelp" (the Chaldean zodiac has a lion couchant), "he crouches as a lion." In this sense, then, "the sceptre shall not depart from Judah," i.e., power shall not leave Leo, until Shelah, Shiloh or Scorpio shall come up or rise. Astronomy teaches that as Leo passes away from the meridian, Scorpio rises. The title "Comforter," "Menachem," MNChM, 40, 50, 8, 40, amounting to 138, and the title "The Branch," applied to the Messiah in Zechariah iii. v. 8, namely, TzMCh, 90, 40, 8, also 138, are of the same number. Metatron, the great angel MThRThN, and ShADDAI ShDI, translated "Almighty," are both 314. The letter Shin, Sh, = 300, is used as a glyph of "the spirit of the living gods," Ruach Elohim RUCh ALhIM, which transmutes into 200, 6, 8, 1, 30, 5, 10, 40, or 300.


The Kabalists sometimes considered the units to refer to Divine Beings, the tens to celestial bodies, hundreds to things of earth, and thousands to future events.

Notaricon, a word derived from the Latin notarius, a shorthand writer, means the construction of a word from the initial or final letters of the several words of a sentence; or vice versa the construction of a sentence of which each word in order begins with the several letters composing a given word: processes of contraction and expansion, therefore.

Refer to Deuteronomy xxx. V. 12, and find that Moses asks, "Who shall go up for us to heaven?" the initials of the words of the sentence, MY YOLh LNU HShMYMH, read "My yeolah lenu hashemimha," form the word MYLH or "Mylah," which means "Circumcision," and the final letters form the word Jehovah, YHUH or IHVH, suggesting that Jehovah pointed out the way, by circumcision, to heaven. Again the first six letters of the book of Genesis, BRAShIT, Berasit, translated "In the beginning," but more properly "In wisdom," are the initials of the words BRAShIT RAH ALHIM ShYQBLU IShRAL TURH, read "Berasit rauah Elohim shyequebelu Israel torah," which mean "In the beginning, God saw that Israel would accept the Law."

The famous Rabbinic name of power, "AGLA," is formed of the initials of the sentence, "Tu potens in sæculum Domine," ATH GBUR LOULM ADNI, Ateh gibur loulam Adonai. The word "Amen" is from AMN, the initials of "Adonai melekh namen," ADNI MLK NAMN, meaning "The Lord and Faithful King."


Temura means Permutation; sometimes the letters of a word are transposed according to certain rules, and with certain limitations; at others each letter of a word is replaced by another according to a definite scheme, forming a new word, of which permutation there are many recognised forms. For example, the alphabet of 22 letters is halved and the two sets placed one over the other in reverse order, thus:—


A   B   G  D  H  V  Z  Ch  Th  Y  K

T   Sh R  Q  Tz P  O  S    N    M L


then A is changed to T, and V to P, and so on; so Babel = BBL becomes Sheshak, i.e., ShShx used by Jeremiah xxv. v. 26. This form is called Atbash or AT-BSh; it will be seen that there must be 21 other possible forms, and these were named in order, thus, Albat, Agdat, etc.; the complete set was called "the combinations of Tziruph." Other Permutations were named Rational, Right, Averse and Irregular; these are produced by forming a square and subdividing it by 21 lines in each direction into 484 smaller squares, and then writing in each square a letter in order successively from right to left, or from above down, or the reverse. The most popular mode of permutation has however been the form called "Kabalah of the Nine Chambers," produced by the intersection of two horizontal and two vertical lines, forming nine spaces, a central square, and 4 three-sided figures, and 4 two-sided figures, to each of which are allotted certain letters; there are several modes even of this arrangement, and there is a mystical mode of allotting the Sephiroth to this figure, but this is a Rosicrucian secret.

This method is used in a superficial manner in Mark Master Masonry.

A further development of the Numerical Kabalah consists of arithmetical processes of Extension and Contraction; thus Tetragrammaton is considered as Y 10, H 5, V 6, H 5, or 26, but also may be spelled in full YVD 20, HA 6, VV 12, HA 6, or 44.


Again, the Kabalists extended a number by series. Zain Z or 7 becomes 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 and 7, or 28. After another manner they contracted, as 28 was equal to 2 and 8, or ro. Again, Tetragrammaton 26 became 2 and 6, or 8, so every number was reducible to a primary numeral. In this manner, within certain restrictive laws, every word had analogies with certain others; thus AB father 1 and 2 are 3, IHV Jehu 10 and 5 and 6 are 21, 2 and 1 are 3. AL ShDI, Al Shaddai, God Almighty, 1, 30, 300, 4, 10, or 345, becomes 12, and then 2 and 1 are 3; HVA or HOA 5, 6, 1, are 12, and then 3; and GDVLH Gedulah 3, 4, 6, 30, 5 are 48, and are 12 and 3.

Another method of substitution leading to results of an opposite character is the substitution in any word of similar letters of another group, hard for soft, or sibilant for dental; thus in TM = perfect, exchange Th for T, and obtain ThM, meaning defiled: ShAN, secure, tranquil, becomes SAN, battle; ShKL, wisdom, becomes SKL, foolish. In the word Shaddai, Sher, Almighty, with soft sibilant and soft dental is Shiddah, a wife; if we replace with a hard dental, a partial change of meaning is effected, ShThH, Sittah, an adulterous wife; both letters hardened completely change the sense, STh, Seth, a fallen man, a backslider; SThN, Satan, adversary.

I cannot, without Hebrew letters, explain well the change of sound in the Shin SH, from SH to S, but it is marked by a dot over the right or left tooth of the three teeth of the letter.

A deep mystery is concealed in the Genetic account of the conversion of the names of Abram, ABRM, into Abraham, ABRHM, and that of his wife Sarai, ShRI, into Sarah, SHRH, see Genesis xvii. v. 5–15, on the occasion of the conception of Isaac, YTZChQ or YShChQ, from the root ShChQ or TzChQ, "laugh," when Sarah was 90 and Abraham 100 years old. This was on the occasion of the covenant made by Jehovah with Abram, and the institution of circumcision of males in token thereof. Now here we have the addition of an H or 5, the essentially Female Letter, to the name of Abraham, and a conversion of a Yod into He, Y into H, in the case of Sarah; and then their sterility is destroyed.


Some learned men consider Abraham to be a conversion of Brahma, the Hindoo Deity. The name splits up curiously. AB is father, BR is son, AM is like OM or AUM, a deific name of Power; RM meant "he is lifted up." Blavatsky remarks that Abraham and Saturn were identical in Astro-symbology; the Father of the Pharisees was Jehovah, and they were of the seed of Abraham.

The number of ABRM is 1, 2, 200, 40 or 243, the number of the man figure, Seir Anpin, representing Microprosopus.

Read Pistorius, "Ars Cabalistica," for the effect of adding H 5 to men's names, see page 969; also Inman, "Ancient Faiths," article Abraham; "Secret Doctrine," i. 578, ii. 77; also C. W. King, "The Gnostics."

The name Sarah also has a curious set of similars in Hebrew—SRH, princess; SAR, flesh; SOR, gate; SChR, black; SUR, hairy seir; SRT, incision; SR and SRR, navel; and note the Sacti of Brahma is Sara-swati, watery; Sara refers to Sri, Lakhsmi, Aphrodite, and all are related to Water and Luna, Vach, Sophia of the Gnostics, and the ideal Holy Ghost, all feminine.

The 243 of Abram becomes 248 by adding H, and Sarai 510 becomes 505 by taking 5 off, putting H for Y, and the total of the two names is unaltered, being 753; 248 is the number of the members of Microprosopus and of RChM, rechem or Mercy.

Before leaving this subject, a reference must be made to the Magic Squares, of the Planets, etc.; to each planet belongs a special unit, and secondarily other numbers.

Thus the Square of Saturn has three compartments each way, and in each subdivision is a unit, 1 to 9, so arranged that the columns add up to 15 every way, the total being 45. The Square of Jupiter has a side of four divisions, total 16; each line adds up to 34, and the total is 136.

The Square of Mars is given here as an example, each side 5, total squares 25, each side counting 65, and total 325.














Similarly the four several numbers of Sol are 6, 36, 111, 666. Of Venus, 7, 49, 175, 1225. Of Mercury, 8, 64, 260, 2080.

Of Luna, 9, 81, 369, 3321. Each number then becomes a name. Take the case of Mercury; 64 is alike DIN and DNI, Din and Doni; 260 is Tiriel, TIRIAL; and 2080 is Taphthartharath, TPTRTRT.

Rawlinson, in his volumes on the Ancient Monarchies, states that the Chaldeans associated mystic numbers with their Deities; thus to Anu, Pluto, 60; Bel, Jupiter, 50; Hoa, Neptune, 40; Sin, the Moon, 30; Shamash, the Sun, 20; Nergal (Mars), 12; and Beltis or Mylitta, 15; and Nin is Saturn, 10.

It will be noticed that the great number of Sol is 666, called Sorath, SURT, the number of the Beast, about which so much folly has been written. One famous square of five times five divisions, amounting in most directions to 666, is formed of the mystic words sator, arepo, tenet, opera, rotas. Of these the first, third, and last number 666, but opera and its reverse number only 356. The number 608 is notable, being in Coptic, PhRE, the sun 500, 100, 8; and in Greek we find VHS, 400, 8, 200, which becomes IHS in Latin, for the Greek Upsilon changes to Y and I in Latin, and so we obtain the anagram of "Iesus hominum Salvator."


Kircher points out a Greek example of magic squares; the names Jesus and Mary, and Iesous Maria have a curious relation. Iesous is 10, 8, 200, 70, 400, 200 = 888. Now take Maria, 40, 1, 100, 10, 1 = 152. Set 152 in a Magic Square of Three, i.e., nine compartments, thus, 1—5—2, 5—2—1, 2—1—5, then the totals are all 888. The letters of Iesous also make a magic square of 36 divisions, adding every way to 888. Consult the "Arithmologia" of Kircher.

Remember "illius meminit Sybilla de nomina ejus vaticinando," "onoma Sou monades, dekades, ekaton tades okto," or "nomen tuum 8 unitates, 8 denarii, 8 centenarii."—See St. Augustine, De Civitate Dei.

Note the mystic word Abraxas is 1, 2, 100, 1, 60, 1, 200 = 365 in Greek letters.

As a curiosity, note that the Roman X for 10 is two V's, which are each 5; C, or, squarely drawn, , for 100 consists of two L's which are each 50. Priscian says I for 1 was taken from i in the middle of the Greek mia, female of eis, 1, and V for 5 because it was the fifth vowel. To remember Hebrew numerals note A, I, Q = 1, 10, 100; and in Greek A, I, R, A= 1, 10, 100, 1,000.

According to "The Canon," of 1897, an anonymous work, a Vesica piscis (the figure formed by the intersection of two equal circles) whose dimensions are 26 and 15, is a symbol of the hidden rule or canon by which Natural laws were represented to Initiates in the secret wisdom of the Ancient Mysteries. The Greek gods Zeus, Jupiter and Apollo, the Sun god, have the same numerical relation.



Numbers, Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott

 

PYTHAGOREAN VIEWS ON NUMBERS

The foundation of Pythagorean Mathematics was as follows:


The first natural division of Numbers is into EVEN and ODD, an EVEN number being one which is divisible into two equal parts, without leaving a monad between them. The ODD number, when divided into two equal parts, leaves the monad in the middle between the parts.

All even numbers also (except the dyad—two—which is simply two unities) may be divided into two equal parts, and also into two unequal parts, yet so that in neither division will either parity be mingled with imparity, nor imparity with parity. The binary number two cannot be divided into two unequal parts.

Thus io divides into 5 and 5, equal parts, also into 3 and 7, both imparities, and into 6 and 4, both parities; and 8 divides into 4 and 4, equals and parities, and into 5 and 3, both imparities.

But the ODD number is only divisible into uneven parts, and one part is also a parity and the other part an imparity; thus 7 into 4 and 3, or 5 and 2, in both cases unequal, and odd and even.

The ancients also remarked the monad to be "odd," and to be the first "odd number," because it cannot be divided into two equal numbers. Another reason they saw was that the monad, added to an even number, became an odd number, but if evens are added to evens the result is an even number.


Aristotle, in his Pythagoric treatise, remarks that the monad partakes also of the nature of the even number, because when added to the odd it makes the even, and added to the even the odd is formed.

Hence it is called "evenly odd." Archytas of Tarentum was of the same opinion.

The Monad, then, is the first idea of the odd number; and so the Pythagoreans speak of the "two" as the "first idea of the indefinite dyad," and attribute the number 2 to that which is indefinite, unknown, and inordinate in the world; just as they adapt the monad to all that is definite and orderly. They noted also that in the series of numbers from unity, the terms are increased each by the monad once added, and so their ratios to each other are lessened; thus 2 is 1 + 1, or double its predecessor; 3 is not double 2, but 2 and the monad, sesquialter; 4 to 3 is 3 and the monad, and the ratio is sesquitertian; the sesquiquintan 6 to 5 is less also than its forerunner, the sesquiquartan 5 and 4, and so on through the series.

They also noted that every number is one half of the total of the numbers about it, in the natural series; thus 5 is half of 6 and 4. And also of the sum of the numbers again above and below this pair; thus 5 is also half of 7 and 3, and so on till unity is reached; for the monad alone has not two terms, one below and one above; it has one above it only, and hence it is said to be the "source of all multitude."

"Evenly even" is another term applied anciently to one sort of even numbers. Such are those which divide into two equal parts, and each part divides evenly, and the even division is continued until unity is reached; such a number is 64. These numbers form a series, in a duple ratio from unity; thus 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. "Evenly odd," applied to an even number, points out that like 6, so, 14, and 28, when divided into two equal parts, these are found to be indivisible into equal parts. A series of these numbers is formed by doubling the items of a series of odd numbers, thus:

1, 3, 5, 7, 9 produce 2, 6, 10, 14, 18.


Unevenly even numbers may be parted into two equal divisions, and these parts again equally divided, but the process does not proceed until unity is reached; such numbers are 24 and 28.

Odd numbers also are susceptible of being looked upon from three points of view, thus:

"First and incomposite"; such are 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 19, 23, 29, 31; no other number measures them but unity; they are not composed of other numbers, but are generated from unity alone.

"Second and composite" are indeed "odd," but contain and are composed from other numbers; such are 9, 15, 21, 25, 27, 33, and 39. These have parts which are denominated from a foreign number, or word, as well as proper unity, thus 9 has a third part which is 3; 15 has a third part which is 5; and a fifth part 3; hence as containing a foreign part, it is called second, and as containing a divisibility, it is composite.

The Third Variety of odd numbers is more complex, and is of itself second and composite, but with reference to another is first and incomposite; such are 9 and 25. These are divisible, each of them that is second and composite, yet have no common measure; thus 3 which divides the 9 does not divide the 25.

Odd numbers are sorted out into these three classes by a device, called the "Sieve of Eratosthenes," which is of too complex a nature to form part of a monograph so discursive as this must be.

Even numbers have also been divided by the ancient sages into Perfect, Deficient and Superabundant.

Superperfect or Superabundant are such as 12 and 24.

Deficient are such as 8 and 14.

Perfect are such as 6 and 28; equal to the number of their parts; as 28—half is 14, a fourth is 7, a seventh is 4, a fourteenth part is 2, and the twenty-eighth is 1, which quotients added together are 28.


In Deficient numbers, such as 14, the parts are surpassed by the whole: one seventh is 2, a half is 7, a fourteenth is 1; the aggregate is 10, or less than 14.

In Superabundant, as 12, the whole surpasses the aggregate of its parts; thus the sixth is 2, a fourth is 3, a third is 4, a half is 6, and a twelfth is 1; and the aggregate is 16, or more than 12.

Superperfect numbers they looked on as similar to Briareus, the hundred-handed giant: his parts were too numerous; the deficient numbers resembled Cyclops, who had but one eye; whilst the perfect numbers have the temperament of a middle limit, and are the emulators of Virtue, a medium between excess and defect, not the summit, as some ancients falsely thought.

Evil is indeed opposed to evil, but both to one good. Good, however, is never opposed to good, but to two evils.

The Perfect numbers are also like the virtues, few in number; whilst the other two classes are like the vices—numerous, inordinate, and indefinite.

There is but one perfect number between 1 and 10, that is 6; only one between 10 and 100, that is 28; only one between 100 and 1000, that is 496; and between 1000 and 10,000 only one, that is 8128.

Odd numbers they called Gnomons, because, being added to squares, they keep the same figures as in Geometry: see Simplicius, liber 3.

A number which is formed by the multiplication of an odd and an even number together they called Hermaphrodite, or "arrenothelus."

In connection with these notes on parity and imparity, definite and indefinite numbers, it is to be noted that the old philosophers were deeply imbued with the union of numerical ideas with Nature—in its common acceptation, and also to the natures, essences or substrata of things.


The nature of good to them was definite, that of evil indefinite; and the more indefinite the nature of the evil, the worse it was. Goodness alone can define or bound the indefinite. In the human soul exists a certain vestige of divine goodness (Buddhi); this bounds and moderates the indefiniteness and inequality of its desires.

It may be demonstrated that all inequality arises from equality, so that obtaining, as it were, the power of a mother and a root, she pours forth with exuberant fertility all sorts of inequality; and did space and time allow, it could be also shown that all inequality may be reduced to equality.

Iamblichus, in his treatise on the Arithmetic of Nicomachus, throws another light on numbers; he says some are like friends, they are Amicable numbers, as 284 and 220.

Pythagoras, being asked what a friend was, said ἐτερος εγω = "another I." Now this is demonstrated to be the case in these numbers; the parts of each are generative of each other, according to the nature of friendship.

Ozanam, a French mathematician, A.D. 1710, gives examples in his "Mathematical Recreations" of such Amicable Numbers. He remarks that 220 is equal to the sum of the aliquot parts of 284; thus 1 + 2 + 4 + 71 + 142 = 220: and 284 is equal to the sum of the aliquot parts of 220; thus 1 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 10 + 11 + 20 + 22 + 44 + 55 + 110 = 284.

Another such pair of numbers are 17,296 and 18,416.


Very curious speculations as to the relation between Numbers and marriage, and the character of offspring from it, are to be found scattered through the writings of the Philosophers. Plato, in his "Republic," has a passage concerning a geometric number, which, divinely generated, will be fortunate or unfortunate. Nicomachus also speaks of this same number, and he calls it the Nuptial Number; and he passes from it to state that from two good parents only good offspring can come; from two bad parents only bad; and from a good and a bad parent only bad; whence he warns the Republic against wedlock in a confused or disorderly manner, from which, the progeny being depraved, discord will result. Simplicius, in his commentary on the 2nd Book of Aristotle, "On the Heavens," remarks that Pythagoras and his followers claimed to have heard the Music of the Spheres, to have heard an harmonic sound produced by the motion of the planets, and from the sound to have calculated by numbers the ratio of distance and size of the Sun, Moon, Venus and Mercury. To this Aristotle objected, but perhaps the difficulty might be solved: in this sublunary sphere all things are not commensurate, nor is everything sensible to every body alike. Animals can be scented, and their presence definitely known, by dogs when at great distances from them, and when man is in complete ignorance of their existence. Some of the ancients thought the soul had three vehicles—the terrestrial body, an aerial one in which it is punished, and an ethereal one, luminous and celestial, in which the soul abides when in a state of bliss. It may be that some one, by purification of the senses, by hereditary magical power, or by probity, or by the sacred operations of his religion, may perceive, with a terrestrial body laid aside, things imperceptible to us, and hear sounds inaudible to us still in bondage; or with mantle partly unfolded, some adept or truth-seeker may perceive, with eyes upraised, sights invisible to mortals, whilst yet his ears are deaf to the sounds beyond us both. For why do we see the stars, while yet we hear not their motion:


Why come not angels from the realms of glory
To visit earth, as in the days of old?
Is heaven more distant
Or has earth grown cold?



Numbers, Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott

THE HERMETIC PHILOSOPHY

 "The lips of wisdom are closed, except to the ears of Understanding"--The Kybalion.


From old Egypt have come the fundamental esoteric and occult teachings which have so strongly influenced the philosophies of all races, nations and peoples, for several thousand years. Egypt, the home of the Pyramids and the Sphinx, was the birthplace of the Hidden Wisdom and Mystic Teachings. From her Secret Doctrine all nations have borrowed. India, Persia, Chaldea, Medea, China, Japan, Assyria, ancient Greece and Rome, and other ancient countries partook liberally at the feast of knowledge which the Hierophants and Masters of the Land of Isis so freely provided for those who came prepared to partake of the great store of Mystic and Occult Lore which the masterminds of that ancient land had gathered together.

In ancient Egypt dwelt the great Adepts and Masters who have never been surpassed, and who seldom have been equaled, during the centuries that have taken their processional flight since the days of the Great Hermes. In Egypt was located the Great Lodge of Lodges of the Mystics. At the doors of her Temples entered the Neophytes who afterward, as Hierophants, Adepts, and Masters, traveled to the four corners of the earth, carrying with them the precious knowledge which they were ready, anxious, and willing to pass on to those who were ready to receive the same. All students of the Occult recognize the debt that they owe to these venerable Masters of that ancient land.

But among these great Masters of Ancient Egypt there once dwelt one of whom Masters hailed as "The Master of Masters." This man, if "man" indeed he was, dwelt in Egypt in the earliest days. He was known as Hermes Trismegistus. He was the father of the Occult Wisdom; the founder of Astrology; the discoverer of Alchemy. The details of his life story are lost to history, owing to the lapse of the years, though several of the ancient countries disputed with each other in their claims to the honor of having furnished his birthplace--and this thousands of years ago. The date of his sojourn in Egypt, in that his last incarnation on this planet, is not now known, but it has been fixed at the early days of the oldest dynasties of Egypt--long before the days of Moses. The best authorities regard him as a contemporary of Abraham, and some of the Jewish traditions go so far as to claim that Abraham acquired a portion of his mystic knowledge from Hermes himself.


As the years rolled by after his passing from this plane of life (tradition recording that he lived three hundred years in the flesh), the Egyptians deified Hermes, and made him one of their gods, under the name of Thoth. Years after, the people of Ancient Greece also made him one of their many gods--calling him "Hermes, the god of Wisdom." The Egyptians revered his memory for many centuries-yes, tens of centuries-- calling him "the Scribe of the Gods," and bestowing upon him, distinctively, his ancient title, "Trismegistus," which means "the thrice-great"; "the great-great"; "the greatest-great"; etc. In all the ancient lands, the name of Hermes Trismegistus was revered, the name being synonymous with the "Fount of Wisdom."

Even to this day, we use the term "hermetic" in the sense of "secret"; "sealed so that nothing can escape"; etc., and this by reason of the fact that the followers of Hermes always observed the principle of secrecy in their teachings. They did not believe in "casting pearls before swine," but rather held to the teaching "milk for babes"; "meat for strong men," both of which maxims are familiar to readers of the Christian scriptures, but both of which had been used by the Egyptians for centuries before the Christian era.

And this policy of careful dissemination of the truth has always characterized the Hermetics, even unto the present day. The Hermetic Teachings are to be found in all lands, among all religions, but never identified with any particular country, nor with any particular religious sect. This because of the warning of the ancient teachers against allowing the Secret Doctrine to become crystallized into a creed. The wisdom of this caution is apparent to all students of history. The ancient occultism of India and Persia degenerated, and was largely lost, owing to the fact that the teachers became priests, and so mixed theology with the philosophy, the result being that the occultism of India and Persia has been gradually lost amidst the mass of religious superstition, cults, creeds and "gods." So it was with Ancient Greece and Rome. So it was with the Hermetic Teachings of the Gnostics and Early Christians, which were lost at the time of Constantine, whose iron hand smothered philosophy with the blanket of theology, losing to the Christian Church that which was its very essence and spirit, and causing it to grope throughout several centuries before it found the way back to its ancient faith, the indications apparent to all careful observers in this Twentieth Century being that the Church is now struggling to get back to its ancient mystic teachings.


But there were always a few faithful souls who kept alive the Flame, tending it carefully, and not allowing its light to become extinguished. And thanks to these staunch hearts, and fearless minds, we have the truth still with us. But it is not found in books, to any great extent. It has been passed along from Master to Student; from Initiate to Hierophant; from lip to ear. When it was written down at all, its meaning was veiled in terms of alchemy and astrology so that only those possessing the key could read it aright. This was made necessary in order to avoid the persecutions of the theologians of the Middle Ages, who fought the Secret Doctrine with fire and sword; stake, gibbet and cross. Even to this day there will be found but few reliable books on the Hermetic Philosophy, although there are countless references to it in many books written on various phases of Occultism. And yet, the Hermetic Philosophy is the only Master Key which will open all the doors of the Occult Teachings!

In the early days, there was a compilation of certain Basic Hermetic Doctrines, passed on from teacher to student, which was known as "THE KYBALION," the exact significance and meaning of the term having been lost for several centuries. This teaching, however, is known to many to whom it has descended, from mouth to ear, on and on throughout the centuries. Its precepts have never been written down, or printed, so far as we know. It was merely a collection of maxims, axioms, and precepts, which were non-understandable to outsiders, but which were readily understood by students, after the axioms, maxims, and precepts had been explained and exemplified by the Hermetic Initiates to their Neophytes. These teachings really constituted the basic principles of "The Art of Hermetic Alchemy," which, contrary to the general belief, dealt in the mastery of Mental Forces, rather than Material Elements-the Transmutation of one kind of Mental Vibrations into others, instead of the changing of one kind of metal into another. The legends of the "Philosopher's Stone" which would turn base metal into Gold, was an allegory relating to Hermetic Philosophy, readily understood by all students of true Hermeticism.


In this little book, of which this is the First Lesson, we invite our students to examine into the Hermetic Teachings, as set forth in THE KYBALION, and as explained by ourselves, humble students of the Teachings, who, while bearing the title of Initiates, are still students at the feet of HERMES, the Master. We herein give you many of the maxims, axioms and precepts of THE KYBALION, accompanied by explanations and illustrations which we deem likely to render the teachings more easily comprehended by the modern student, particularly as the original text is purposely veiled in obscure terms.

The original maxims, axioms, and precepts of THE KYBALION are printed herein, in italics, the proper credit being given. Our own work is printed in the regular way, in the body of the work. We trust that the many students to whom we now offer this little work will derive as much benefit from the study of its pages as have the many who have gone on before, treading the same Path to Mastery throughout the centuries that have passed since the times of HERMES TRISMEGISTUS--the Master of Masters--the Great-Great. In the words of "THE KYBALION":


"Where fall the footsteps of the Master, the ears of those ready for his Teaching open wide."

--The Kybalion.


"When the ears of the student are ready to hear, then cometh the lips to fill them with Wisdom."

--The Kybalion.


So that according to the Teachings, the passage of this book to those ready for the instruction will attract the attention of such as are prepared to receive the Teaching. And, likewise, when the pupil is ready to receive the truth, then will this little book come to him, or her. Such is The Law. The Hermetic Principle of Cause and Effect, in its aspect of The Law of Attraction, will bring lips and ear together--pupil and book in company. So mote it be!



The Kybalion, by Three Initiates

Zosimos of Panoplis

The composition of the waters, and the movement, and the growth, and the removal and restitution of bodily nature, and the splitting off of the spirit from the body, and the fixation of the spirit on the body are not operations with natures alien one from the other, but, like the hard bodies of metals and the moist fluids of plants, are One Thing, of One Nature, acting upon itself. And in this system, of one kind but many colours, is preserved a research of all things, multiple and various, subject to lunar influence and measure of time, which regulates the cessation and growth by which the One Nature transforms itself.


And saying these things, I slept, and I saw a certain sacrificing priest standing before me and over and altar which had the form of a bowl. And that altar had fifteen steps going up to it.

Then the priest stood up and I heard from above a voice say to me, "I have completed the descent of the fifteen steps and the ascent of the steps of light. And it is the sacrificing priest who renews me, casting off the body's coarseness, and, consecrated by necessity, I have become a spirit."

And when I had heard the voice of him who stood in the altar formed like a bowl, I questioned him, desiring to understand who he was.


He answered me in a weak voice saying, "I am Ion, Priest of the Adytum, and I have borne an intolerable force. For someone came at me headlong in the morning and dismembered me with a sword and tore me apart, according to the rigor of harmony. And, having cut my head off with the sword, he mashed my flesh with my bones and burned them in the fire of the treatment, until, my body transformed, I should learn to become a spirit. And I sustained the same intolerable force."

And even as he said these things to me and I forced him to speak, it was as if his eyes turned to blood and he vomited up all his flesh. And I saw him as a mutilated image of a little man and he was tearing at his flesh and falling away.


And being afraid I woke and considered, "Is this not the composition of the waters?" I thought that I was right and fell asleep again. And I saw the same altar in the shape of a bowl and water bubbled at the top of it, and in it were many people endlessly. And there was no one whom I might question outside of the bowl. And I went up to the altar to view the spectacle.


And I saw a little man, a barber, whitened with age, and he said to me, "What are you looking at?"


I answered that I wondered at the boiling water and the men who were burning but remained alive.


And he answered me saying, "The spectacle which you see is at once the entrance and the exit and the process."


I questioned him further, "What is the nature of the process?"


And he answered saying, "It is the place of the practice called the embalming. Men wishing to obtain virtue enter here and, fleeing the body, become spirits."


I said to him, "And are you a spirit?"


And he answered, saying, "Both a spirit and a guardian of spirits."


As he was saying these things to me and the boiling increased and the people wailed, I saw a copper man holding a lead tablet in his hand. He spoke aloud, looking at the tablet, "I counsel all those in mortification to become calm and that each take in his hand a lead tablet and write with his own hand and that each bear his eyes upward and open his mouth until his grapes be grown."

The act followed the word and the master of the house said to me, "Have you stretched your neck up and have you seen what is done?"


And I said that I had and he said to me, "This man of copper whom you have seen is the sacrificial priest and the sacrifice and he who vomited out his own flesh. To him was given authority over the water and over those men in mortification."

And when I had seen these visions, I woke again and said to myself, "What is the cause of this vision? Is this not the white and yellow water, boiling, sulphurous, divine?"


And I found that I understood well. And I said that it was good to speak and good to hear and good to give and good to receive and good to be poor and good to be rich. And how does the Nature learn to give and to receive? The copper man gives and the water-stone receives; the thunder gives the fire that flashed from it. For all things are woven together and all things are taken apart and all things are mingled and all things combined and all things mixed and all things separated and all things are moistened and all things are dried and all things bud and all things blossom in the altar shaped like a bowl. For each, by method and by weight of the four elements, the interlacing and separation of the whole is accomplished for no bond can be made without method. The method is natural, breathing in and breathing out, keeping the orders of the method, increasing and decreasing. And all things by division and union come together in a harmony, the method not being neglected, the Nature is transformed. For the Nature, turning on itself, is changed. And the Nature is both the nature of the virtue and the bond of the world.


And, so that I need not write to you of many things, friend, build a temple of one stone, like ceruse, like alabaster, like marble of Proconnesus in appearance, having neither beginning nor end in its building. Let it have within, a pure stream of water glittering like sunlight. Notice on what side the entry to the temple is and take your sword in hand and seek the entry. For thin-mouthed is the place where the opening is and a serpent lies by it guarding the temple. First seize him in your hands and make a sacrifice of him. And having skinned him, cut his flesh from his bones, divide him, member from member, and having brought together again the members and the bones, make them a stepping stone at the entry to the temple and mount upon them and go in, and there you will find what you seek. For the priest whom you see seated in the stream gathering his colour, is not a man of copper. For he has changed the colour of his nature, and become a man of silver whom, if you wish, after a little time, you will have as a man of gold.

Then, again wishing to ascend the seven steps and to behold the seven mortifications and, as it happened, one day only did I ascend the way. Retracing my steps, I thereupon ascended the way many times. And on returning, I could not find the way, and becoming discouraged, not seeing how to get out, I fell asleep.


And I saw in my sleep a certain little man, a barber, wearing a red robe and royal garments, and he stood outside of the place of the mortifications and said, "What are you doing, Man?"


I said to him, "I stand here because I have missed every road and am lost."


He said, "Follow me".


And going out, I followed him. And being near to the place of the mortifications, I saw the little barber man leading me and he cast into the place of the mortifications and his whole body was consumed by fire.


Seeing this, I fled and trembled from the fear and I woke and said to myself, "What is this that I have seen?" And again I took thought and determined that this barber man is the man of copper. It is necessary for the first step to throw him into the place of the mortifications. My soul again desired to ascend -- the third step also. And again, alone, I went along the way, and as I drew near the place of the mortifications, again I got lost, losing sight of the path, and stood, out of my mind.


And again I saw an old man of hair so white my eyes were blinded by the whiteness. His name was Agathodaemon. And the white old man, turning, looked on me for a whole hour.


And I asked him, "Show me the right way."


He did not turn toward me but hastened to go on the right way. And going and coming in this manner he quickly effected the altar. As I went up to the altar I saw the white old man. He was cast into the mortifications. O Creator-gods of celestial natures -- straightaway the flames took him up entire, which is a terrible story, my brother. For from the great energy of the mortifications his eyes became full with blood.


And I questioned him saying, "Why do you lie there?"


And he opened his mouth and said, "I am the man of lead and I am withstanding an intolerable force."


And then I woke out of fear and sought in myself the cause of this fact. And again I reflected and said to myself, "I understand well that thus must one cast out the lead -- truly the vision is concerning the combination of liquids."


And again I knew the theophany and again the sacred altar and I saw a certain priest clothed in white celebrating those same terrible mysteries and I said, "Who is this?"


And answering he said to me, "This is the priest of the Adytum. He wishes to put blood into the bodies, to make the eyes clear, and to raise up the dead."


And again I fell asleep for a while and while I was mounting the fourth step I saw one with a sword in his hand coming out of the east. And I saw another behind him, holding a disk, white and shining and beautiful to behold. And it was called the meridian of the Sun and I approached the place of the mortifications and the one who held the sword said to me, "Cut off his head and sacrifice his meat and muscles part by part so that first the flesh may be boiled according to the method and that he might then suffer the mortifications."


And waking, I said, "I understand well that these matters concern the liquids of the art of the metals."


And the one who held the sword said "You have fulfilled the seven steps beneath."


And the other said at the same time as the casting out of the lead by all the liquids, "The Work is completed."



From the third century A.D. Greek adept Zosimos of Panoplis.

Allegories of Zosimos of Panoplis


THE MYSTERIES OF THE QABALAH

MOTTO.


The children of light delight in the words of the wise, because they are light unto their feet and direct their paths. "Why is a man ill?" asks the pupil. "By reason of his disobedience to the light," says the Rabbi. Ponder then on the words of the Holy Qabalah and let it heal all your infirmities.

—From an Ancient Commentary on Zohar.


Before entering into a study of the holy scriptures which shall be more profitable than that which has been entered into by the sectarian dogmatists of the past, it is necessary to obtain a sure foundation upon which may be built a stately edifice worthy the attention of men who value truth and wisdom more than mere argument.

To this end a knowledge of the methods used by the Qabalists of old to explain their sacred scriptures and mysteries is necessary, for it is this knowledge which will constitute the foundation of the edifice. It is essential that these methods be fully understood, for any new presentment of ancient truths must carry conviction with it, must, as it were, prove itself as it goes, and prove itself logically so that the student may pass step by step and stage by stage to a complete understanding of the mysteries.


The Qabalah, playing as it does such an important part in the unveiling of the Scriptures, must be understood by those who wish to enter into the details and comprehend fully the methods used by the Qabalists. Hence the first and most important question to be answered is "What is the Qabalah?"

It is easy to give an explanation of the meaning of the word itself, for its root is QBL, which means "to receive," hence the Qabalah is the "received" doctrine, the esoteric side of the scriptures, the Doctrine of the Heart, in contradistinction to the doctrine of the eye, the inner Truth as opposed to the outer form.

There is, however, no Book of the Qabalah, no manuscript called "The Qabalah," but many manuscripts and books have been written based upon qabalistic knowledge, and these different works are known collectively as the Qabalah. They are, however, merely opinions and statements embodying the ideas of the Hidden Wisdom, which has ever been taught to companies of students by the teachers of the Secret Doctrine though seldom written down. The true innermost teachings are always given "in the house" or upon the hill, that is to say, "in Open Lodge."


We have, however, to remember, when entering upon a study of the Qabalah, that it is to be viewed in three ways, viz., historically, as regards the documents, etc., then again in reference to the qabalistic methods of teaching and unveiling the mysteries hidden in the scriptures, and finally, as the Qabalah, the Wisdom itself, or Spirit, Soul and Body, for everything in the whole universe must of necessity be threefold as will be proved later, and therefore the Qabalah is no exception to the rule.

It is well to remember these distinctions and to realize the difference between the Qabalistic Wisdom, the means of production and the product or appearance. The Qabalah, then, viewed from this point of view, is not a book as so often thought, just as the Occult Teaching, the Secret Doctrine is not a book, even though the Secret Doctrine happens to be the name of a book containing many of the teachings derived from that source.

What, then, is the Qabalah, and whence does it originate? These are the questions which have puzzled the minds of many scholars in the past and may still continue to puzzle many in the future, especially those who endeavor to fix and tabulate the Ancient Wisdom, who do not look beyond the eye of flesh.


Hitherto nothing definite has been settled as to the origin of the Qabalah; as regards the documentary evidence there are few historical data of an exact kind upon which the intellectual writers could fall back, hence many have been driven into the realm of surmise and opinion. One declares, repeating the information given in a very old manuscript, that this wisdom was given by God himself to a company of angels, and esoterically speaking he may be correct, if we think of an Avatar in the place of a personal God and of Masters instead of Angels. Another declares the Qabalah or rather that part of it comprised under the title Zohar to be the work of Simeon ben Yochai, who lived at the time of the destruction of the second Temple, whilst others declare that it is a modern invention, the work of Moses de Leon. All seem to forget that the Qabalah itself, being merely the expression of Cosmic Truth, can have had no actual beginning but must be as eternal as that truth itself. It is reasonable to suppose (although there are many Occultists who have a knowledge of the past and declare that there were always some Great Ones upon earth with a knowledge of the Secret Wisdom or Qabalah) that there were indeed always men who knew of these doctrines and that they were continually being given out to the world in different lands and at different epochs as required, sometimes in one form and at other times in another, but ever was the same Truth veiled in the teachings. The Qabalah or the vehicle for the Divine Wisdom is eternal, for it is the means of manifesting the knowledge stored up in the memory of Nature, the memory of God, the Akashic Records or Aether of Space.


This Aether of Space is according to Occultists a veritable Picture Gallery, or rather a Kinemetograph which when wound up and contacted by the initiated Seer shows picture after picture of the Past, as veil after veil is lifted, for these pictures are the true memory of Nature impressed upon the Aether or Akasha, just as the memory of the past is said by scientists to be impressed upon the matter of the brain. If the one statement be found reasonable then the other is not a whit less so.

In this sense, then, the Qabalah had no beginning except as the world itself had a beginning, and man himself had a beginning, for the Divine Wisdom is Eternal in the Heavens.

"But there must have been a time when the wisdom was first promulgated, when these Qabalistic doctrines were first given out to students," says the reader. True, but then we have to consider that our knowledge of history does not take us far back into the tune-stream. Wherever we look, apart from the ordinary historical records, we find that this inner teaching has existed. We see it hidden in the ancient writings of South America, in the Temples and on the stones and monuments of Egypt, and elsewhere. The same wisdom is to be read in the Sacred Writings the world over, in Sanskrit, in Greek, in Latin, in Chinese, and in fact in any sacred writing which is truly sacred, that is, which is capable of teaching Truth to man. In the Vedas it looms large, it is to be found upon the papyri of the Priests of Egypt, on the stones of Assyria and Babylon, in the writings of the ancient Persians and Sassanians, in all countries and in all climes. In Peru and in other parts of America, in China, in Japan and throughout Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia, everywhere are traces of this Ancient Wisdom to be found. The Occultists tell us likewise in various works, notably the Secret Doctrine, Isis Unveiled, Man; Whence, How and Whither, and many others, that the Ancient Wisdom was ever known to the Teachers of men and continually given out by them as time and occasion called it forth. All this may be seen in the pictures of the Kinemetograph of Nature, the Akashic records. It is, however, useless to offer evidence of this description where the historical facts are required and for this latter purpose a history of the written Qabalah will be necessary.


There exist certain manuscripts of a certain date and from these we deduce certain facts: this is the method usually followed by the historians. In the case of the "history" of the Qabalah, it is but a will-o’-the-wisp, which leads us nowhere, although it is necessary in order to have a general idea of the subject to chase this will-o’-the-wisp until it can lead us no farther, and then we shall have to depend upon the voice of Intuition. And here it may be necessary to say that in addition to the Bibliography at the end of this volume, there are other sources and other authorities upon which these writings are based, and these authorities have been consulted during the course of the studies. The careful student always likes to have before him chapter and verse of the "authority." "Where," he asks, "did you obtain this knowledge?" "What is the authority for the statements?" and so forth. The answer is easy. A certain knowledge of the efforts made by others in the past to unravel the Qabalistic mysteries is necessary to all students, but need not long be dwelt upon, for the only thing that matters is the knowledge of the Qabalah itself and not what men think of it. This book knowledge then constitutes a part of the "authority," for all that will be given out in these pages, but the chief Authority is the knowledge applied and the "sweet reasonableness" inherent in the teaching itself. With the different Keys, of which a description will shortly be given, it is possible for all students to apply the knowledge of the Qabalah to the unraveling of the scriptures and their mysteries. Apart, then, from the books to which reference is made at the end of this number, there are other "books" used in the compiling of these writings, and it may be well to name them. The first "book" is called "The Volume of the Aural Knowledge," the second is "The Book of the Intuition," the third is "The Voice of the Earthly Guru," and finally, there is the "book" to which all students may refer, "The Book of the Akashic Records." Unfortunately, however, these are all "out of print," and cannot be read even at the British Museum. The reader, therefore, who cannot read these works, will have to be content with the use of his Balance, he will be able to weigh in that all that is here set forth and judge all that is written in the calm light of Reason. Faith and knowledge must go hand in hand in studies such as these, although every effort will be made to satisfy the critical mind.


So many minds, so many ideas. One historian, copying from another, tells us that the Qabalah was given. by God to a company of Angels, another says that it was handed from Abraham to his son and so on unto the present. This latter, we may feel sure, is correct, though chapter and verse cannot be quoted to prove such a statement. A. E. Waite speaks of the book called Sepher Yetzirah, in which certain Qabalistic doctrines are written as probably being the work of Rabbi Akiba, and as supposed to have been written down during the second century. We cannot accept the idea that Rabbi Akiba was the actual author of this work, but certainly as a Qabalist, which assuredly he was according to his esoteric writings, he certainly may have been one of those who were led to write down some of the knowledge which had come to him, as was done in the time of the great Rabbi Simeon ben Yechai by his disciples. It is certain that the Qabalistic doctrines were commonly known to students

as far back as the first century, and also that there were manuscripts which could be read by Christians who had access to them, for the doctrine relating to the inner meanings of the Hebrew Alphabet, which is the most important Qabalistic teaching, the true Key to the scriptures, is mentioned by St. Agobard, in the following words:

"Further, they believe the letters of their alphabet to have existed from everlasting, and before the beginning of the world to have received diverse offices, in virtue of which they should preside over created things."

This quotation is from a letter of St. Agobard, and in mentioning it in his Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah, Waite does not seem to have noticed in passing by this evidence of the antiquity of the written Qabalah, the fact that St. Agobard is himself quoting from the Book of the Zohar, or Splendour, in which it is stated that all the Hebrew letters were used by God to prepare for the creation of the world. To this fact we refer later on, when the letters themselves will be explained and their true significance be shown. It is sufficient to know from this quotation alone that the Qabalistic works date back considerably before the first century, for here we have a writer quoting from them as from old-established doctrines well known to all. The date can be placed even farther back by those who study the doctrines of the ancient Egyptians, and indeed it may be said in the opinion of many students that the Qabalistic teachings are undoubtedly of Egyptian and Chaldaic origin as far as the Jews are concerned. This might well be proved by a comparison of the meanings and values of the Hebrew and Egyptian letters, but that must be left until a later period.


The Book of the Zohar is said to have originated with Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai, but this is not accepted by the different scholars, who claim that the writer of the Sepher Ha-Zohar was merely a very much more modern writer who lived some centuries after the Rabbi Simeon. This writer, Moses de Leon, who died in the year 1305, is said to have sold the book himself, calling it the work of Simeon ben Yochai. Some have called him harsh names for this so-called mis-statement, but it is not so false as it would appear. It is beyond doubt that this same Moses de Leon was the compiler and writer of the Book of the Zohar as such, but he, according to the "Book of Intuition," merely wrote down the ideas which certainly were given out by the Rabbi Simeon as a consecutive narrative or book and issued it as the work of the Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai which, strictly speaking, it was, although Moses de Leon was the compiler. Who knows but what Moses de Leon himself was a reincarnation of one of the disciples of the Rabbi Simeon and that he was overshadowed in the work of compilation by the great and blessed Rav himself as others since have been. But this by the way, such evidence not being fitting for the eyes and ears of scholars.

The book of the Zohar is said by its compiler to have been discovered in a cavern where it had lain many years, and it is not an unlikely tale, although scoffed at by modern critics. It is quite reasonable to suppose that Moses de Leon did find some old manuscripts written by the disciples of the Rabbi Simeon in the second century, and that he edited them and re-arranged their teachings and added some of his own wisdom of which we may be sure he had an abundance. But it is not correct to declare that he pretended that these were doctrines of an ancient time whilst writing them himself.


The mention of Saint Agobard and his writings by A. E. Waite, is truly strange, for he, although rejecting the idea that the work called the Zohar was a forgery of Moses de Leon, and being inclined to believe that the doctrines treated of therein were far older than time of writing, does not notice that Saint Agobard himself, who lived between the year 779 and 840, makes clear reference to the very same doctrines of which Moses de Leon is accused of being the forger. The quotation of Saint Agobard is taken from the book of the Zohar or, rather, from the teachings included in that work, as all may see on referring thereto. Hitherto there has been no writer or scholar who has noticed this striking refutation of the attack upon Moses de Leon which is remarkable, to say the least of it, for here is ample proof that the doctrines in question are far older even than the time of Rabbi Moses de Leon who is in some quarters believed to have been their author. Saint Agobard then makes references to doctrines which have been said by some to have been invented in the 13th century, though lie himself lived in the first century.

Dr. Schiller-Szinessy in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition, says that the Zohar "was begun in Palestine late in the second or third century, a.d., and finished at the latest in the sixth or seventh century. It is impossible that it should have been composed after that time and before the renaissance, as both language and contents show."

This does not, however, dispose of the fact that the Qabalah itself is of infinitely greater antiquity even though some of its doctrines may have been written down in the second century.

To search for the "author" of the Qabalah as scholars have done for so long, is in fact a vain attempt, for it would be just as wise to search for the origin of Religion itself. As H. P. Blavatsky says in her Theosophical Glossary, no two writers are "agreed upon the origin of the Kabala, the Zohar, Sepher Yetzirah. Some show them as coming from the Biblical Patriarchs, Abraham and even Seth: others from Egypt, others again from Chaldea. The system is certainly very old: but like all the rest of the systems, whether religious or philosophical, the Kabala is derived directly from the primeval Secret Doctrine of the East* . . . Whatever its source, its substratum is at any rate identical with that of all the other ancient systems, from the Book of the Dead, down to the later Gnostics."


Hence the student is again reminded that the study of Qabalah is no mere Jewish work, but must be the work of occult students whose ideas are beyond the reach of sectarian differences, although they may be working within a sect or born into the environment of a special religion, for the occult student is not bound by forms even whilst he follows the ceremonies and ritual of his forefathers. Indeed it is wise that he should follow them, from an occult point of view.

For those who are interested in dates and descriptions it will be helpful to refer to the works mentioned at the end of this volume, but it is not essential to the study of the true doctrine. Let it suffice to quote one of the best and most intuitive men who has ever translated the Qabalistic writings, before passing from this section of our study.

Isaac Myer, in his erudite and intuitive work called Qabbalah, page 170, says that the Gnostics, and others, the so-called heretical sects, copied from the Qabalah, which is not perfectly correct, for it would be better to say that the Gnostics were acquainted with the Secret Wisdom which is Qabalah, but this is of no moment. He goes on to state, "we may find many of the Hebrew Qabbalistic ideas in the Aryan writings, in the Vedas, especially in their Upanishads, in the Bhagavadgita, the Tantras, etc. Among the Chinese, in the Yih-King, the writings attributed to Laou Tze’, and other secret philosophical books. We may also find them in the Zend, and other early Persian writings, in the cuneiform texts of the early inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Babylonia, and Assyria: on the monuments and papyrus of Egypt, and among the remains of the archaic Buddhists and Dravidian races of India, among others in the cave temples of Ellora, Elephanta, and the Sanchi and Amravati topes. It is extremely probable that many reminiscences of them are in Thibet, in the possession of the Buddhists."

Thus standing the ravages of time what can this wisdom be but truly Divine and Eternal.

The history of books is not important after all, it is the "Thing-in-itself" that matters to the truth seeker. Let us then, leave these dates and data, for the history of the Qabalah has not yet been nor will ever be written by any scholar, whose knowledge is of the head only.


The various books called "Qabalistic" or purporting to be the "Qabalah" are many. Few of them have been translated and the most important has not yet been thoroughly translated into the English tongue, although there is a splendid version in French of the Zohar, translated by De Pauly and posthumously issued by his friend Lafume-Giraud to both of whom the greatest gratitude is due, for there is no better translation extant. It is not, however, perfect, for there are many interpolations introduced for the sake of clearness, which may have the opposite effect. However, if read, with the eye of the Spirit an infinite amount of knowledge may be gained by students. Most of the Zoharic quotations of this series are from that work.

The following are the works in question: The Book of the Zohar, or Sepher Ha-Zohar, which includes within it many treatises and books, all called generically Zohar, but known separately by other names. The book of Zohar proper is a commentary of rare worth upon the Pentateuch, in which is concealed a vast amount of learning, though it is not easy to follow its reasoning except with a key and also with the aid of a knowledge of the Eastern doctrines, and the Sanskrit writings. Many editions of this work have been issued partly in Hebrew, but mainly in Aramaic and Chaldaic.


The next in importance is the Sepher Yetzirah *, or book of formation, which is not mentioned by all writers, though it has been translated into French and English. It refers mystically to the "creation by number," and requires much thought for the unravelling of the mysteries there "explained," especially in the English translation. It is also noted for its treatment of the "thirty-two paths." It is a very short treatise though its wisdom is infinite. There is a difficulty in judging the age of the different manuscripts, but probably this is the oldest of all. There is, however, no definite authority for these statements, for all writers differ, so that we shall have to be content merely with the Qabalah itself, and leave the dates to those who care for them.

The Sepher Sephiroth, or book of the Becomings, treats of the Emanation of the different Cosmic Beings, the evolution of the Many from the One, or rather the description of the Many who themselves constitute the One. This is the book from which most of the "intellectual" writers cull their riddles when they speak of the Ten Sephiroth, but seldom give any explanation of the true meaning of these "Emanations" which is left to Theosophical writers who have given out the same doctrines in simple language. Those students who are interested in this subject and wish to know the details of these emanations are referred to The Kabbalah Unveiled, by S. L. McGregor Mathers. The introduction to that work is the best that has been written within the last fifty years, and deserves the greatest attention on the part of the student, the next in order of merit being a work written in English by Isaac Myer called Qabbalah and privately published by him in 1888 at Philadelphia, there being but 350 copies issued. In some respects this latter work is of greater importance than the previous one, as it covers such a vast field, and moreover it is only the introduction of Mathers which is important, for the text itself, the translations of parts of the collected works called Zohar, leaves much to be desired. Further, the Zoharistic commentary itself is not touched, this being left to Jean de Pauly's French version.


Finally we have the Aish Metzraph, that is, "the Fire which purified," but this work is deeply mystical and little understood except by Alchemists, containing secrets of alchemy which were known to the Jews of old.

As one of the Zoharistic works, the Sepher Dzyaniouta must be mentioned, especially for its likeness to the Stanzas of Dzyan of the "Secret Doctrine." This treats of what is called the "Concealed Mystery," the doctrine of the "Balance," an Egyptian survival, probably taken from the Egyptians together with the other jewels of which the Israelites are said to have spoiled them. There are also other minor works of importance, but these are generally bound up with the Zohar. These treat of various matters, the emanations of the Deity, or "Creation," the doctrine of Reincarnation, or Gilgool, that is, "revolutions of the soul," and also the doctrine of Karma, or as it is called in Hebrew, Judgments or Mischpotim. Other treatises are of a more difficult and perhaps more dangerous character, treating of demons, and obsessing entities, etc., as well as of Angels and elementals, and such-like creatures.


Mysteries of the Qabalah, by Elias Gewurz



The Unprinted Literature of Ceremonial Magic

For the purposes of the present, inquiry it will be convenient to consider the Rituals under the three heads of Transcendental, Composite and Black, subject, as regards the first, to some specific qualifications which will appear in the second chapter, and subject, in respect of all, to the perfect understanding that these three are one. So far as may be possible, the antiquity of individual Rituals will be determined in the course of their examination, but as this inquiry is based, with a single exception of undeniable importance, upon the printed literature, because it is that only which has exercised a real influence, it may be well, as a conclusion to this introductory part, to give some information regarding magical processes which have remained in manuscript, and are to be found only, or can at least be consulted only, in the public libraries of Europe. Almost without exception, the source of their inspiration is the work mentioned in the preface, namely, The Key of Solomon, and they are consequently of later date. The Library of the Arsénal at Paris has a reputation for being especially rich in Magical MSS., but there is also a large collection in the British Museum which may be regarded as typical. There is nothing of earlier date or more importance among the French treasures, and, to determine the question of antiquity in a few words, there is nothing among our own that is much anterior to the beginning of the fourteenth century.


The numerical strength of the treatises, late and early combined, is in itself considerable, but, setting aside the codices made use of by the English editor of The Key of Solomon, the interest of which was exhausted long since by the appearance of that work, there are only three small classes or cycles to which an especial appeal attaches in connection with the present inquiry. The first may be termed the group of Honorius, comprising three MSS.; the second is that of the Sepher Raziel, of which there are two forms; the third includes the English codices of the Lemegeton. The chief MS. of the first group is also one of the most ancient treatises dealing with Magic in the library. This is Sloane 313, a Latin MS. on vellum, in a bad state of preservation. The close writing and abbreviations make it somewhat difficult to read. It is interesting, however, because it connects with the Grimoire of Honorius, one of the most historical and notable Rituals of Black Magic, being the work of some person bearing that name. It belongs to the fourteenth century and has no title or other determinate name, but it appears from the text that it was understood to be the Sworn Book of Honorius. The introduction or prologue to the work is obscurely worded in the initial pages, but it seems to account for the condemnation of magic by the prelates of the Church on the ground that they have been deceived by demons. The result is the convocation of all the "masters of Magic," to the number of 811, all of whom seem to have come out of Naples, Athens and a place. entitled Tholetus. Among these a species of spokesman was chosen, whose name was Honorius, the son of Euclidus, Master of the Thebans.


He was deputed to work for the rest, and he entered into counsel with an angel called Hochmel or Hocroel, (? Hochmaël), and thereafter wrote seven volumes of Magical Art, "giving the kernel to us and the shells to others." From these books he seems afterwards to have extracted ninety-three chapters, containing a summary of the whole subject, and made them into a volume which "we term the sacred or sworn book." In the meantime, the princes and prelates, having burned "certain fables or trifles," concluded that they had completely destroyed the art, and were therefore pacified. The magicians, however, took an oath among themselves to preserve the masterpiece of Honorius in the most secret and careful manner, making three copies at the most, the possessor of any example being bound over to bury it before his decease, or otherwise insure its interment in his own grave, unless there were some trusty and worthy person to whom it could be transmitted. It is interesting to note that this is the Law of Transmission in respect of Alchemy. The important point about the MS. itself is that it fixes the source of the mendacious tradition which ascribes a Grimoire of Black Magic to a Pope of the name of Honorius, as will be seen at length later on. The Sworn Book is not, of course, the Grimoire, but the existence and reputed authorship of the one will enable us to understand the attribution of the other.


Honorius the sorcerer was identified with Honorius the Pope, firstly by the confused mind of magical legend, and secondly by conscious imposture, much after the same manner that Raymond Lully, the "illuminated doctor" of Majorca, was identified with Lully the alchemist, by tradition at the inception, and not long afterwards by the help of forged treatises. The Sworn Book is in other respects remarkable, and has been unaccountably overlooked by writers on Ceremonial Magic; it may be taken to indicate that an association of magicians was most probably in corporate existence during or before the fourteenth century. While it is clearly of Christian origin, it derives from the supposed works of Solomon, and would appear to indicate that the Solomonic cycle was at that time only in course of formation, as also that the earliest elements approximate not to the Grand Clavicle, but to the Little Key, otherwise, the Lemegeton. As to the operations contained in the Sworn Book, they are those of White and Black Magic, undiscriminated, without, however, any trace of the conventional "dealing with the devil." The MS. under notice need not, of course, be regarded as the original; as to this there is no means of knowing. The British Museum possesses also a later transcript, belonging to the sixteenth century, and a most valuable English translation, written on vellum in beautiful Gothic characters. It is referred to the fifteenth century.


The second group comprises two MSS., both in the Sloane collection, and both containing, among other treatises, the important and curious work attributed to Solomon under the title of Sepher Raziel. That numbered 3826 belongs to the sixteenth century. It is an English translation of a Latin original which in this form is unknown to myself; the first line of the original is usually given at the beginning of each section. It is divided into seven books, and purports to have been sent to Solomon by a prince of Babylon who was greater and more worshipful than all men of his time, his name being Sameton, while the two wise men who brought it were called Kamazan and Zazant. The Latin title of the treatise is said to be Angelus Magnus Secreti Creatoris; it was the first book after Adam, was written in the language of Chaldea and afterwards was translated into Hebrew. It is a noticeable fact that in this work the first section is entitled Clavis, and if we may regard the Sepher Raziel as antedating the Claviculæ, it explains why a Key was attributed to Solomon. The Clavis in question is, however, concerned with the magical influences of the stars, "without which we can effect nothing." The second book is called Ala; it treats of the virtues of stones, herbs and beasts. The third is Tractatus Thymiamalum, the use of which term connects it with the Sworn Book of Honorius; it treats of suffumigations. The fourth sets out the times of the year, day and night which are disposed to operation; the fifth embodies the laws regarding lustrations and abstinence; while the sixth, called Samaim, expounds the nature of the heavens, of the angels and of the operations of each. The seventh and last book is concerned with the virtues of names. A Latin version of the Sepher Raziel occurs in Sloane MS. 3853, ascribed to the same period. It differs from the former in several considerable respects, being also much shorter and full of rare magical symbols.

The MSS. of the third group are all in English, and all of late date.


Sloane 2731 is a very neat MS., begun on January 10, 1676, and containing the entire Lemegeton, or Lesser Key of Solomon, in English. Some account of this celebrated work, which has so unaccountably escaped publication, will be found in the third chapter of this part. Sloane 3648 is another manuscript of the Lemegeton, also in English, together with the Ars Notoria, a book of invocations and prayers attributed to Solomon, of which there are many examples extant in England and on the Continent. 1 It is a work which connects with Magic without being itself Magical, and, in fact, stands in much the same relation to the Key or Clavicle as the Enchiridion of Pope Leo to the Isagoge of the Arbatel. Lastly, the same MS. contains the Magical Archidoxies of Paracelsus, but the version seems to be quite distinct from the treatise so entitled in the Geneva folio, containing the collected writings of the German adept. 1 In either case, it is not a work of Ceremonial Magic, its title notwithstanding. Sloane 3805 is a quarto MS., chiefly alchemical and medical, comprising a translation of the forged epistles of Sendivogius, and towards the end the Lemegeton, started by the writer apparently with the intention of transcribing all the works attributed to Solomon under the heading of this angelic name. It breaks off, however, at the end of the offices of the thirteenth spirit belonging to the Infernal Hierarchy.


It should be added that the three groups contain materials which are common to all. The independent treatises which follow the Sepher Raziel in Sloane 3826 extract matter from the Sworn Book, while that entitled Liber Lunæ, concerning the intelligences of the mansions of the moon, the squares of the planets, their seals, rings and so forth--which, by the way, seems in this form unknown to modern critics--has given material to other and later collections.

The unprinted literature of Ceremonial Magic offers a considerable field to research, though even in the historical or bibliographical interest it is questionable whether it would repay the pains, unless research of all kinds whatsoever is to be regarded as its own reward. Among the miscellaneous MSS. in the British Museum, it is here only necessary to notice two, as they contain materials connected with the present design. Sloane 3884 includes a process in Necromancy--how to call the ghost of a dead body--the invocation of spirits into a crystal--the form for summoning spirits within the circle--and a method of exorcism in the Tuscan language,--all impudently attributed to the author of the Nullity of Magic--that is to say, Roger Bacon. In the second part of my present work a special chapter is devoted to Infernal Necromancy, and the MS. here mentioned will be useful for purposes of reference. Sloane 3850 is a MS. of the seventeenth century, which contains transcripts from the fourth book of Cornelius Agrippa and from the Heptameron of Peter de Abano in Latin.


There is also a Good and Proved Experiment for evocation, which uses the Pater, Ave, Credo and Litany of the Saints as magical formulae. Finally, there are processes, mostly in Latin, but some in English, for the discovery of things lost, the recovery of things stolen, for the spirits of the dead who cannot rest in their graves, and for persons possessed by evil spirits. The treatise De Novem Candariis Salomonis, containing curious figures and sigils, deserves particular mention, as this again seems unknown to students. Its attribution notwithstanding, it is the work of a Catholic writer.


The Book of Ceremonial Magic by Arthur Edward Waite

The Distinction between White and Black Magic

Having considered the possible standpoints from which the Rituals may be regarded, we come now to the distinctions that are made between them, and, first and foremost, to that which has been already mentioned and is artificially instituted between White and Black Magic. The history of this distinction is exceedingly obscure, but there can be no question that in its main aspect it is modern--that is to say, in so far as it depends upon a sharp contrast between Good and Evil Spirits. In Egypt, in India and in Greece, there was no dealing with devils in the Christian sense of the expression; Typhon, Juggernaut and Hecate were not less divine than the gods of the over-world, and the offices of Canidia were probably in their way as sacred as the peaceful mysteries of Ceres.

Each of the occult sciences was, however, liable to that species of abuse which is technically but fantastically known as Black Magic. Astrology, or the appreciation of the celestial influences in their operation upon the nature and life of man, could be perverted in the composition of malefic talismans by means of those influences. Esoteric Medicine, which consisted in the application of occult forces to the healing of disease in man, and included a traditional knowledge of the medicinal properties resident in some substances disregarded by ordinary pharmacy, 1 produced in its malpractice the secret science of poisoning and the destruction of health, reason or life by unseen forces.


The transmutation of metals by Alchemy resulted in their sophistication. In like manner, Divination, or the processes by which lucidity was supposed to be induced, became debased into various forms of witchcraft and Ceremonial Magic into dealing with devils. White Ceremonial Magic is, by the terms of its definition, an attempt to communicate with Good Spirits for a good, or at least an innocent, purpose. Black Magic is the attempt to communicate with Evil Spirits for an evil, or for any, purpose.

The contrasts here established seem on the surface perfectly clear. When we come, however, to compare the ceremonial literature of the two classes, we shall find that the distinction is by no means so sharp as might be inferred from the definitions. In the first place, so-called Theurgic Ceremonial, under the pretence of White Magic, usually includes the Rites for the invocation of Evil Spirits. Supposing that they are so invoked for the enforced performance of works contrary to their nature, the issue becomes complicated at once, and White Magic must then be defined as the attempt to communicate with Good or Evil Spirits for a good, or at least for an innocent, purpose.


This, of course, still leaves a tolerably clear distinction, though not one that I should admit, if I admitted the practical side of the entire subject to anything but unconditional condemnation. Yet the alternative between a good and an innocent object contains all the material for a further confusion. It will be made clear as I proceed that the purposes and ambitions of Magic are commonly very childish, so that we must distinguish really between Black and White Magic, not as between the essentially good and evil, but as between that which is certainly evil and that which may only be foolish. Nor does this exhaust the difficulty. As will also be made evident in proceeding, White Ceremonial Magic seems to admit of a number of intentions which are objectionable, as well as many that are frivolous. Hence it must be inferred that there is no very sharp distinction between the two branches of the Art. It cannot be said, even, that Black Magic is invariably and White Magic occasionally evil. What is called Black Magic is by no means diabolical invariably; it is almost as much concerned with preposterous and stupid processes as the White variety with those of an accursed kind. Thus, the most which can be stated is that the literature falls chiefly into two classes, one of which usually terms itself Black, but that they overlap one another.


In what perhaps it may be permissible to call the mind of Magic, as distinct from the effects which are proposed by the Rituals, there has been always a tolerable contrast between the two branches corresponding to Magus and Sorcerer, and the fact that the ceremonial literature tends to the confusion of the distinction may perhaps only stamp it as garbled. But this is not to say that it has been tampered with in the sense of having been perverted by editors. White Magic has not usually been written down into Black; Goëtic Rituals have not been written up in pseudo-celestial terms. They are, for the most part, naturally composite, and it would be impossible to separate their elements without modifying their structure.

Modern occultism has taken up the clear distinction and developed it Appealing to the secret traditional knowledge behind the written word of Magic--to that unmanifested science which it believes to exist behind all science--and to the religion behind all religion, as if the two were related or identical, it affirms that the advanced occult life has been entered by two classes of adepts, who have been sometimes fantastically distinguished as the Brothers of the Right and the Brothers of the Left, transcendental good and transcendental evil being specified as their respective ends, and in each case they are something altogether different from what is understood conventionally by either White or Black Magic.


As might be expected, the literature of the subject does not bear out this development, but, by the terms of the proposition, this is scarcely to be regarded as an objection. For the rest, if many rumours and a few questionable revelations must lead us to concede, within certain limits, that there may have been some recrudescence of diabolism in more than one country of Europe, some attempt at the present day to communicate formally with the Powers of Darkness, it must be said that this attempt returns in its old likeness and not invested with the sublimities and terrors of the modern view. Parisian Diabolism, for example, in so far as it may be admitted to exist, is the Black Magic of the Grimoire and not the sovereign horror of the Brothers of the Left Hand Path, wearing their iniquity like an aureole, and deathless in spiritual evil. These enigmatical personages are, however, the creation of romance, as are also their exalted, or at least purified, confrères. Between Rosicrucian initiates of astral processes and the amatores diaboli there is indubitably the bond of union which arises from one fact: il n'y a pas des gens plus embêtants que ces gens-là.



The Book of Ceremonial Magic by Arthur Edward Waite


The antiquity of Magical Rituals

§ 1. The Importance of Ceremonial Magic


THE ordinary fields of psychological inquiry, largely in possession of the pathologist, are fringed by a borderland of occult and dubious experiment into which pathologists may occasionally venture, but it is left for the most part to unchartered explorers. Beyond these fields and this borderland there lies the legendary wonder-world of Theurgy, so called, of Magic and Sorcery, a world of fascination or terror, as the mind which regards it is tempered, but in either case the antithesis of admitted possibility. There all paradoxes seem to obtain actually, contradictions coexist logically, the effect is greater than the cause and the shadow more than the substance. Therein the visible melts into the unseen, the invisible is manifested openly, motion from place to place is accomplished without traversing the intervening distance, matter passes through matter. There two straight lines may enclose a space; space has a fourth dimension, and untrodden fields beyond it; without metaphor and without evasion, the circle is mathematically squared. There life is prolonged, youth renewed, physical immortality secured. There earth becomes gold, and gold earth. There words and wishes possess creative power, thoughts are things, desire realises its object. There, also, the dead live and the hierarchies of extra-mundane intelligence are within easy communication, and become ministers or tormentors, guides or destroyers, of man. There the Law of Continuity is suspended by the interference of the higher Law of Fantasia.


But, unhappily, this domain of enchantment is in all respects comparable to the gold of Faerie, which is presumably its medium of exchange. It cannot withstand daylight, the test of the human eye, or the scale of reason. When these are applied, its paradox becomes an anticlimax, its antithesis ludicrous; its contradictions are without genius; its mathematical marvels end in a verbal quibble; its elixirs fail even as purges; its transmutations do not need exposure at the assayer's hands; its marvel-working words prove barbarous mutilations of dead languages, and are impotent from the moment that they are understood; departed friends, and even planetary intelligences, must not be seized by the skirts, for they are apt to desert their draperies, and these are not like the mantle of Elijah.


The little contrast here instituted will serve to exhibit that there are at least two points of view regarding Magic and its mysteries--the simple and homogeneous view, prevailing within a charmed circle among the few survivals whom reason has not hindered from entering, and that of the world without, which is more complex, more composite, but sometimes more reasonable only by imputation. There is also a third view, in which legend is checked by legend and wonder substituted for wonder. Here it is not the Law of Continuity persisting in its formulae despite the Law of Fantasia; it is Croquemetaine explained by Diabolus, the runes of Elf-land read with the interpretation of Infernus; it is the Law of Bell and Candle, the Law of Exorcism, and its final expression is in the terms of the auto-da-fé. For this view the wonder-world exists without any question, except that of the Holy Tribunal; it is not what it seems, but is adjustable to the eye of faith in the light from the Lamp of the Sanctuaries; in a word, its angels are demons, its Melusines stryges, its phantoms vampires, its spells and mysteries the Black Science. Here Magic itself rises up and responds that there is a Black and a White Art, an Art of Hermes and an Art of Canidia, a Science of the Height and a Science of the Abyss, of Metatron and Belial. In this manner a fourth point of view emerges; they are all, however, illusive; there is the positive illusion of the legend, affirmed by the remaining adherents of its literal sense, and the negative illusion which denies the legend crassly without considering that there is a possibility behind it; there is the illusion which accounts for the legend by an opposite hypothesis, and the illusion of the legend which reaffirms itself with a distinction.


When these have been disposed of, there remain two really important questions--the question of the Mystics and the question of history and literature. To a very large extent the first is closed to discussion, because the considerations which it involves cannot be presented with profit on either side in the public assemblies of the reading world. So far as may be held possible, it has been dealt with already. As regards the second, it is the large concern and purpose of this inquiry, and the limits of its importance may therefore be stated shortly.

There can be no extensive literatures without motives proportionate to account for them. If we take the magical literature of Western Europe from the Middle Ages and onward, we shall find that it is moderately large. Now, the acting principles in the creation of that literature will prove to rule also in its history; what is obscure in the one may be understood by help of the other; each reacted upon each; as the literature grew, it helped to make the history, and the new history was so much additional material for further literature.


There were, of course, many motive principles at work, for the literature and history of Magic are alike exceedingly intricate, and there are many interpretations of principles which are apt to be confused with the principles, as, for example, the influence of what is loosely called superstition upon ignorance; these and any interpretations must be ruled out of an inquiry like the present. The main principles are summed in the conception of a number of assumed mysterious forces in the universe which could be put in operation by man, or at least followed in their secret processes. In the ultimate, however, they could all be rendered secondary, if not passive, to the will of man; for even in astrology, which was the discernment of forces regarded as peculiarly fatal, there was an art of ruling, and sapiens dominabitur astris became an axiom of the science. This conception culminated or centred in the doctrine of unseen, intelligent powers, with whom it was possible for prepared persons to communicate; the methods by which this communication was attempted are the most important processes of Magic, and the books which embody these methods, called Ceremonial Magic, are the most important part of the literature. Here, that is to say, is the only branch of the subject which it is necessary to understand in order to understand the history. Had Magic been focussed in the reading of the stars, it would have possessed no history to speak of, for astrology involved intellectual equipments which, comparatively speaking, were possible only to the few. Had Magic centred in the transmutation of metals, it would never have moved multitudes, but would have remained what that still is, the quixotic hope which emerges at a far distance from the science of chem